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Table 4 Severely impaired interpretation performers (LIP) show compromised cognition compared to healthy controls (Con) and non impaired interpretation performers (HIP)

From: Odor naming and interpretation performance in 881 schizophrenia subjects: association with clinical parameters

Trait Descriptive Group contrast Effect [95%CI] Statistic p
Basic characteristics
Age (years) SZ 39.5 ± 13 (17–78)      
mean ± SD (range) Con 38.8 ± 14 (18–71) HIP / Con 2.75 [−0.81, 6.31] t275= 1.522a 0.13
  HIP 41.0 ± 11 (22–64) LIP / Con 1.25 [−2.31, 4.81] t275= 0.693a 0.49
  LIP 39.7 ± 13 (18–71) LIP / HIP −1.40 [−4.58, 1.77] t174=−0.873a 0.38
Gender (% female) SZ 33       
  Con 32   HIP / Con OR 1.25 [0.66, 2.38] Fisherb 0.54
  HIP 38   LIP / Con OR 0.83 [0.42, 1.62] Fisherb 0.64
  LIP 28   LIP / HIP OR 0.66 [0.33, 1.31] Fisherb 0.26
      for females    
Smoker status (% yes) SZ 48       
  Con 63   HIP / Con OR 0.45 [0.21, 0.94] Fisherb 0.025
  HIP 43   LIP / Con OR 0.57 [0.26, 1.23] Fisherb 0.15
  LIP 49   LIP / HIP OR 1.26 [0.52, 3.05] Fisherb 0.68
      for smokers    
Disease related higher and basal cognition and premorbid intelligence
Reasoningc SZ 20.8 ± 6.6 (2–38)      
mean ± SD (range) Con 27.2 ± 5.2 (14–38) HIP / Con −3.00 [−4.86, -1.14] t265=−3.180a 1.6x10 -3
  HIP 21.5 ± 6.5 (8–38) LIP / Con −5.49 [−7.63, -3.35] t265=−5.058a 7.9 x10 -7
  LIP 18.2 ± 6.7 (2–34) LIP / HIP −2.45 [−4.07, -0.82] t164=−2.971a 3.4 x10 -3
Fine motor function SZ −0.12 ± 0.91 (−3.22–3.22)      
compositec Con 0.97 ± 0.68 (−1.09–2.83) HIP / Con −0.53 [−0.75, -0.31] t268=−4.674a 4.7 x10 -6
mean ± SD (range) HIP −0.002 ± 0.87 (−2.40–1.83) LIP / Con −0.78 [−1.03, -0.52] t268=−5.951a 8.3 x10 -9
  LIP −0.45 ± 0.93 (−2.89–1.90) LIP / HIP −0.23 [−0.41, -0.05] t167=−2.471a 0.014
Premorbid SZ 26.2 ± 6.1 (4–37)      
intelligenced Con 30.9 ± 4.0 (18–37) HIP / Con −0.22 [−2.06, 1.62] t267=−0.236a 0.81
mean ± SD (range) HIP 27.8 ± 5.0 (13–37) LIP / Con −2.60 [−4.74, -0.46] t267=−2.393a 0.017
  LIP 23.8 ± 7.0 (5–35) LIP / HIP −2.51 [−4.19, -0.83] t166=−2.955a 3.6 x10 -3
  1. Multiple testing adjusted significances (applying Bonferroni (p≤ 0.007) and the closed testing principle) are set in boldface. All other p-values 0.05 are set in italic; at-Statistic tdf with df degrees of freedom for estimation of difference in means (employing a linear model on Blom-transformed trait); bFisher’s exact test for count data; cAdjusted for age at exam and PANSS negative (value 7 for healthy control). Reasoning ability was measured by LPS3 (subtest 3 of the Leistungsprüfsystem, a German test covering Thurstone’s primary mental abilities). Fine motor function composite is the mean from standardized (by Blom-transformation) MacQuarrie dotting and tapping; dAdjusted for age (age of onset of psychosis for schizophrenia HIP and LIP, age at exam for healthy control) and PANSS negative (value 7 for healthy control). Premorbid intelligence was assessed by MWTB (Mehrfachwahl-Wortschatz-Intelligenztest, English translation: multiple choice vocabulary test of intelligence). Abbreviations: Con= Healthy control (N=102); SZ= Descriptive statistics for whole schizophrenia sample (N=881); HIP= High interpretation performers (N=88); LIP= Low interpretation performers (N=88), OR=Odds Ratio.