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Table 5 Severely impaired interpretation performers (LIP) show a more severe psychopathology, compromised cognition and emotional processing compared to high interpretation performers (HIP)

From: Odor naming and interpretation performance in 881 schizophrenia subjects: association with clinical parameters

   Descriptive       LIP compared to HIP
SZ (N=881) LIP (N=88) HIP (N=88) Effect [95%CI] P (Statistic)
Disease relevant confounders
Years of education median 12.0 11.0 13.0 −1.55 5.4 x10 -4
(years) interquartile [10.0, 13.5] [9.0,13.0] [10.0,15.0] [−2.42, -0.68] (t174=−3.525 a)
  range (8.0-27.0) (8.0-20.5) (8.0-24.0)   
Duration of disease median 11.0 13.7 11.1   0.28
(years) interquartile [4.7, 20.1] [6.4, 21.9] [5.3, 20.9] - (W=3466b)
  range (0.008,58.4) (0.1, 47.4) (0.6, 45.3)   
Number of median 3.0 3.0 4.0   0.10
hospitalizations interquartile [2.0, 6.0] [2.0, 5.0] [3.0, 6.0] - (W=2532b)
  range (0, 55) (1, 44) (1, 50)   
Chlorpromazine median 500 600 450   0.068
equivalents interquartile [250, 900] [300, 1072] [228, 817] - (W=3216b)
  range (0, 7375) (0, 3238) (0, 3064)   
Functional outcome, disease severity and psychopathology
General assessment of mean ± SD 45.6 ± 17.2 38.0 ± 17.1 49.8 ± 17.0 −11.93 6.5x10 -6
functioning (GAF) range (5, 90) (10, 85) (20, 90) [−16.99, -6.87] (t171=−4.654a)
Age-at-prodrome (years) median 20 19 23 −2.70 0.054
interquartile [17,26] [16,24] [17,30] [−5.44, 0.05] (t153=−1.942a)
range (2, 66) (12, 66) (2, 47)   
PANSS negative median 17.0 22.0 15.0 4.54 1.7 x10 -4
interquartile [12.0, 23.0] [14.0, 27.0] [11.0, 21.8] [2.21, 6.88] (t171= 3.840a)
range (7.0, 44.0) (7.0, 40.0) (7.0, 38.0)   
PANSS positive median 12.0 15.0 11.0 3.96 1.6 x10 -4
interquartile [9.0, 17.0] [10.0, 22.0] [8.0, 15.8] [1.94, 5.98] (t171= 3.869a)
range (7.0, 38.0) (7.0, 37.0) (7.0, 38.0)   
Disease-related cognition
Higher cognition mean ± SD −0.03 ± 0.78 −0.41 ± 0.84 0.07 ± 0.83 −0.24 4.3 x10 -3
compositec range (−2.64, 1.93) (−2.64, 1.40) (−1.92, 1.77) [−0.40, -0.07] (t169=−2.896a)
Alertness (TAP)c median −282 −331 −270 −80.75 1.4 x10 -4
(msec) interquartile [−350, -245] [−479, -270] [−311, -237] [−121.61, -39.89] (t164=−3.902a)
  range (−1288, -163) (−1219, -206) (−878, -192)   
Emotional processing items
PANSS negative median 8.0 10.0 7.0   3.3 x10 -3
N1+N2+N3d interquartile [5.0, 11.0] [6.0, 12.3] [4.0, 11.0] - (W=2883b)
  range (0.0, 21.0) (3.0, 18.0) (0.0, 16.0)   
  1. Multiple testing adjusted significances (Bonferroni: p≤0.0045) are set in boldfaces, all other p-values≤0.05 in italic. at-Statistic tdf with df degrees of freedom for estimation of difference in means (employing a linear model on Blom-transformed trait; small differences in degrees of freedom are due to low percentages of missing trait values). bWilcoxon rank sum test. cAdjusted for age and PANSS negative. dN1: Blunted affect, N2: Emotional withdrawal, N3: Poor rapport. Abbreviations: SZ= Descriptive statistics for whole schizophrenia sample (N=881); HIP= High interpretation performers (N=88); LIP= Low interpretation performers (N=88), OR=Odds Ratio.