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Table 2 Multiple linear regression - prediction of posttraumatic stress (IES-R 1 ) at 6 months postdisaster, N = 674

From: Posttraumatic stress and symptom improvement in Norwegian tourists exposed to the 2004 tsunami – a longitudinal study

  Step 1 Background Step 2 + exposure and peritraumatic reactions Step 3 + personality factors Step 4 + post-disaster factors
  β2 t p-value β2 t p-value β2 t p-value β2 t p-value3
Female 0.15 3.71 <0.001 0.09 2.59 0.010 0.08 2.13 0.034 0.10 2.63 0.009
Age at time of tsunami (years) 0.01 0.27 0.786 0.08 2.18 0.030 0.10 2.81 0.005 0.09 2.65 0.008
High educational level −0.13 −3.38 0.001 −0.09 −2.58 0.010 −0.04 −1.16 0.245 −0.04 −0.98 0.327
Unemployed (pre-disaster) 0.11 2.76 0.006 0.12 3.37 0.001 0.11 3.15 0.002 0.08 2.40 0.017
Living alone (pre-disaster) −0.06 −1.44 0.150 0.01 0.20 0.84 −0.02 −0.44 0.657 −0.02 −0.65 0.515
Pre-tsunami mental health problems 0.06 1.60 0.111 0.05 1.28 0.195 −0.05 −1.34 0.179 −0.04 −1.17 0.241
Chased or caught by the waves   0.19 5.23 <0.001 0.18 5.19 <0.001 0.18 5.00 <0.001
Witnessed abandoned children, death or suffering of others   0.23 6.34 <0.001 0.24 6.82 <0.001 0.23 6.57 <0.001
Loss of family members or close friends   0.11 3.04 0.003 0.09 2.66 0.008 0.09 2.68 0.008
Experienced intense fear, helplessness, or horror (peritraumatic fear)   0.28 7.67 <0.001 0.25 7.04 <0.001 0.24 6.83 <0.001
Extraversion (I)      −0.05 −1.30 0.194 −0.02 −0.59 0.558
Agreeableness (II)      0.04 1.04 0.298 0.05 1.37 0.171
Conscientiousness (III)      −0.08 −2.02 0.044 −0.09 −2.14 0.032
Emotional stability (IV)      −0.25 −5.74 <0.001 −0.24 −5.45 <0.001
Openness (V)      <0.01 0.05 0.959 <0.01 0.10 0.922
Social support         −0.14 −4.12 <0.001
  1. 1Impact of Event Scale Revised.
  2. 2Standardized partial regression coefficient, indicate the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable controlled for all the other independent variables in the regression model.
  3. 3P-values <0.05 are highlighted with bold script in the final step.