Skip to main content

Table 3 Multiple linear regression - predictors of symptom improvement (IES-R 1 score) from 6 months postdisaster to 24 months postdisaster, N = 674

From: Posttraumatic stress and symptom improvement in Norwegian tourists exposed to the 2004 tsunami – a longitudinal study

  Step 1 Background Step 2 + IES-R (T1) Step 3 + personality factors Step 4 + post-disaster factors
  β2 t p-value β2 t p-value β2 t p-value β2 t p-value3
Female 0.04 0.96 0.338 −0.02 −0.37 0.711 −0.01 −0.09 0.925 −0.01 −0.15 0.884
Age at time of tsunami (years) −0.01 −0.29 0.772 <−0.01 −0.13 0.901 −0.05 −1.21 0.228 −0.04 −1.04 0.297
High educational level 0.06 1.48 0.140 0.10 2.69 0.007 0.06 1.40 0.161 0.08 1.96 0.051
Unemployed (at T1) 0.05 1.09 0.275 −0.04 −1.05 0.292 −0.03 −0.88 0.379 −0.03 −0.75 0.454
Living alone (at T1) −0.01 −0.26 0.796 −0.01 −0.23 0.819 −0.01 −3.79 0.705 0.02 0.42 0.678
Pre-tsunami mental health problems −0.03 −0.81 0.421 −0.05 −1.23 0.218 0.05 1.25 0.213 0.08 1.94 0.053
IES-R score at T1   0.39 9.83 <0.001 0.51 12.5 <0.001 0.54 12.6 <0.001
Extraversion (BFI-I)      −0.04 −0.81 0.420 −0.03 −0.60 0.550
Agreeableness (BFI-II)      −0.01 −0.12 0.907 −0.01 −0.24 0.811
Conscientiousness (BFI-III)      0.05 1.10 0.274 0.03 0.75 0.454
Emotional stability (BFI-IV)      0.33 6.43 <0.001 0.32 6.06 <0.001
Openness (BFI-V)      0.03 0.67 0.505 0.02 0.44 0.657
Social support         0.01 0.28 0.780
Referred to a mental health specialist         −0.12 −2.17 0.002
Experienced ≥2 adverse life events last 12 months at T2         −0.08 −1.93 0.054
  1. 1Impact of Event Scale Revised.
  2. 2Standardized partial regression coefficient, indicate the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable controlled for all the other independent variables in the regression model.
  3. 3P-values <0.05 are highlighted with bold script in the final step.