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Table 2 Multivariable GEE model 1 and adjusted odds ratio for child emotional development (N=385)

From: Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child’s mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

Variables Adjusted odds ratio 95%confidence interval (CI)
Mother’s depression   
No 1.0 -
Yes 5.9 (3.0, 11.9)
Child stunted   
No 1.0 -
Yes 2.3 (1.1, 4.8)
Mother’s age 2 1.5 (1.1, 2.2)
Mother’s education   
Literate 1.0 -
Illiterate 1.6 (0.8, 3.1)
Husband’s education   
Literate 1.0 -
Illiterate 0.4 (0.2,1.0)
Husband’s income   
≥ 3500 Rupees/month 1.0 -
< 3500 Rupees/month 1.8 (0.9, 3.8)
Total number of children alive   
≥ 3 1.0 -
<3 1.8 (0.9, 3.8)
Physical abuse of mother by a person in the house   
No 1.0 -
Yes 2.5 (0.7, 9.0)
Any complication during delivery   
No 1.0 -
Yes 0.5 (0.2, 1.1)
  1. 1Adjusting for verbal abuse of children by a person in the house, and month-follow-up (modeled as cubic polynomial).
  2. AR(1) correlation structure, QIC =418.08 QICu= 418.92
  3. 2The reported odds ratio and CI is for every 5 years increase in age.