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Table 3 Multivariable GEE model 1 and adjusted odds ratio for child cognitive (perception & learning) development (N=385)

From: Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child’s mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

Variables Adjusted odds ratio 95%confidence interval
Mother’s age   
≥ 30 1.0 -
<30 1.8 (1.1, 3.0)
Total number of children alive 2   
<1 1.0 -
≥ 1 1.7 (1.0, 2.7)
Child sunted   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.5 (0.9, 2.3)
Interaction between mother’s depression & month of follow-up   
2nd Month of follow-up 3   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.1 (0.2, 6.2)
6th Month of follow-up 3   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 3.3 (1.1, 9.9)
12th Month of follow-up 3   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 6.8 (3.0, 15.7)
  1. 1Adjusting for mother’s & husband’s education respectively and month-follow-up (modeled as cubic polynomial).
  2. Exchangeable correlation structure, QIC =726.82 QICu= 725.82.
  3. 2Total number of children alive at the index pregnancy.
  4. 32nd month of follow-up is 25th percentile, 6th month the median and 12th month the 75th percentile of follow-up month values.