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Table 4 Multivariable GEE model 1 and adjusted odds ratio for child language development (N=385)

From: Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child’s mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

Variables Adjusted odds ratio 95%confidence interval
Child’s gender   
Female 1.0 -
Male 1.4 (0.9, 2.2)
Total number of children alive 2 1.1 (1.01, 1.3)
Child stunted   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.6 (1.0, 2.4)
Mother’s education   
Matric or above 1.0 -
Read & write only/Below matric 1.6 (1.0, 2.7)
Illiterate 1.8 (1.0, 3.3)
Current pregnancy accepted   
Yes 1.0 -
No 1.5 (0.9, 2.4)
Mother works for pay or profit   
Yes 1.0 -
No 6.9 (1.7, 28.3)
Study area   
Manzoor colony 1.0 -
Qayoomabad 3.6 (2.1, 6.3)
Interaction between mother’s depression & husband’s income   
Not depressed & income ≥ 35003 1.0 -
Not depressed & income < 3500 1.0 (0.6, 1.6)
Depressed & income ≥ 3500 1.4 (0.6, 3.5)
Depressed & income < 3500 5.4 (2.3, 12.4)
  1. 1Adjusting for mother’s age and month-follow-up (modeled as linear polynomial).
  2. AR(1) correlation structure, QIC =861.41 QICu= 858.10.
  3. 2Total number of children alive at the index pregnancy; this variable is continuous (linear) in this model.
  4. 3Rupees/month.