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Table 6 Multivariable GEE model 1 and adjusted odds ratio for child fine motor development (N=385)

From: Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child’s mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

Variables Adjusted odds ratio 95%confidence interval
Child stunted   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.8 (1.03, 3.0)
Child had difficulty in breast feeding   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.8 (1.01, 3.4)
Mother’s education   
Matric or above 1.0 -
Below matric2 1.4 (0.8, 2.4)
Mother’s age 3 1.2 (0.9, 1.6)
Total number of children alive 4   
≥ 3 1.0 -
<3 1.7 (0.95, 3.0)
Any complication during delivery   
No 1.0 -
Yes 0.6 (0.3, 1.04)
Physical abuse of mother by a person in the house   
No 1.0 -
Yes 2.4 (0.9, 6.7)
Husband’s income   
≥ 3500 Rupees/month 1.0 -
< 3500 Rupees/month 2.2 (1.4, 3.5)
Interaction between mother’s depression & month of follow-up   
2nd Month of follow-up 5   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 0.4 (0.1, 1.6)
6th Month of follow-up 5   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 0.7 (0.2, 2.2)
12th Month of follow-up 5   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 1.6 (0.6, 4.2)
18th Month of follow-up 6   
Mother depressed   
No 1.0 -
Yes 4.0 (1.4, 11.3)
  1. 1Adjusting for husband’s education, physical abuse of children by a person in the house and month-follow-up (modeled as linear polynomial).
  2. Exchangeable correlation structure, QIC =623.48 QICu= 626.56.
  3. 2Below Matric refers to any level of education below Matric, Read & Write Only or Illiterate.
  4. 3The reported odds ratio and CI is for every 5 years increase in age.
  5. 4Total number of children alive at the index pregnancy.
  6. 52nd month of follow-up is 25th percentile, 6th month the median and 12th month the 75th percentile of follow-up month values.
  7. 6Impact of Maternal A & D was assessed at 18 months as the effect was not significant at 2 and 6 months, and only an evidence of an impact was seen at 12 months. The later indicate that a significant effect of maternal A & D will manifest itself as the follow-up time increases.