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Table 1 Studies assessing the rates of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in clinical samples of treatment-seeking individuals with obesity

From: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and impairment in executive functions: a barrier to weight loss in individuals with obesity?

First author (year) [ref] Sample characteristics Key findings
Altfas (2004) [21] 215 patients with obesity treated in a specialized obesity clinic (Males: 22; mean age: 43.4 ± 10.9 years) Prevalence of ADHD in the whole sample: 27.4%. Prevalence of ADHD in individuals with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2: 42.6%. Mean BMI loss among patients with ADHD: 2.6 BMI (kg/m2) vs. 4.0 for non-ADHD (p < 0.002)
Erermis (2004) [22] 30 adolescents with obesity (Males: 14; mean age: 13.8 ± 1.2 years) seeking treatment in a paediatric endocrinology outpatient clinic Prevalence of ADHD: 13.3%
Agranat-Meged (2005) [23] 26 adolescents in a tertiary referral centre for obesity (Males: 13; mean age: 13.04 ± 2.8 years ), all with morbid obesity (BMI > 95 percentile) 57.7% of the subjects presented with ADHD diagnosed with semi-structured interviews
Fleming (2005) [24] 75 women with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) (mean age: 40.4 ± 7.25 years) referred for non surgical treatment of obesity 26.7% of women reported impairing symptoms of ADHD in both childhood and adulthood
Alfonsson (2012) [25] 187 individuals (Males: 50; mean age: 44.28 ± 6.02 years) with obesity, candidate for bariatric surgery 10% of the subjects presented with ADHD. ADHD symptoms significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, and disordered eating (“lack of control over eating”, “eating alone because embarrassed”, “eating until feeling uncomfortable”, and “feeling guilty after overeating”)
Gruss (2012) [26] 116 patients (Males: 31; mean age: 44.28 ± 6.02 years) candidate for bariatric surgery 12% of the patients screened positive for ADHD. Rates of Binge Eating disorder did not differ between patients with and without ADHD
Nazar (2012) [27] 150 women (mean age: 38.9 ± years) Prevalence of ADHD: 28.3%. ADHD was significantly correlated with more severe binge eating, bulimic behaviors, and depressive symptoms severity