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Table 4 Prevalence of comorbid diagnoses (top panel) and positive family history (bottom panel) of cases classified as: (i) ‘anxious-depression’ (ANX-DEP); (ii) ‘mania-fatigue’ (MAN-FAT); or (iii) ‘developmental-psychotic’ (DEV-PSY)

From: Evaluating differential developmental trajectories to adolescent-onset mood and psychotic disorders

  ANX-DEP MAN-FAT DEV-PSY Significance test
  (n = 310) (n = 152) (n = 143) χ2 or ANOVA(2,df) [p]
Comorbidity     
ADHD 13% (40/310) 11% (17/152) 24% (34/143) 12.4 [.015]
Autistic spectrum disorders 7% (20/310) 3% (5/152) 6% (8/143) 2.0 [.371]
Substance use     
Comorbid substance misuse 37% (115/310) 44% (67/152) 41% (59/143) 2.3 [.313]
Age first nicotine [% cases = users] 14.8 ± 2.5 [56%] 14.6 ± 3.1 [67%] 14.8 ± 2.8 [69%] F (291) = 0.2 [.850]
Age first alcohol [% cases = users] 14.7 ± 2.4 [78%] 14.4 ± 2.2 [87%] 14.6 ± 3.3 [79%] F (181.5) = 0.4 [.642]
Age first cannabis [% cases = users] 15.6 ± 2.3 [50%] 15.3 ± 2.7 [60%] 15.3 ± 2.4 [56%] F (260) = 0.4 [.674]
Family History     
Depression (n/N) 56% (129/231) 54% (65/120) 24% (27/112) 33.1 [.000]
Anxiety (n/N) 22% (51/231) 34% (41/120) 14% (16/112) 13.2 [.001]
Bipolar (n/N) 12% (27/231) 28% (34/120) 7% (8/112) 24.3 [.000]
Schizophrenia (n/N) 7% (17/231) 18% (22/120) 23% (26/112) 18.2 [.000]
Substance misuse (n/N) 21% (49/231) 30% (36/120) 25% (28/112) 3.3 [.189]
Suicide (n/N) 6% (15/231) 4% (5/120) 6% (7/112) 0.8 [.672]
  1. Note: ‘ADHD’ = Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.