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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Yoga for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Patients Cointerventions ns Intervention groups Longest follow-up Outcome measures Results
  (N, Diagnosis, Age)   (program length, frequency, duration)     
    Treatment Control   1) Symptoms Short-term Long-term
       2) Well-being   
       3) Cognitive function   
       4) Social function   
       5) Hospitalization   
       6) Safety   
Behere et al., 2011 [41] Varambally et al., 2012 [42] 119 patients with Schizophrenia according to DSM IV CGI≥3 YOGA 32.8±10.0 y EX 30.6±7.3 y WL 33.6±9.5 y Antipsychotic drugs Yogasana (YOGA) 4 months: Month 1: 25x45 minutes instructed SVYASA Yoga (loosening exercises, postures, breathing, relaxation, no meditation) Month 2-4: home based training 1. Exercise (EX) 4 months Month 1: 25x45 min. instructed physical exercise (walking, jogging, postures, relaxation) Month 2-4: home based training 2. Usual care (UC) 4 months 4 months 1) PANSS a) positive symptoms b) negative symptoms c) total 3) TRACS 4) SOFS total 6) Extrapyramidal Symptoms 1) a) YOGA: sign. improvement; EX/WL: n.s. b) YOGA: sign. improvement; EX/WL: n.s. c) YOGA: sign. improvement; EX/WL: n.s. 3) YOGA: sign. improvement; EX/WL: n.s. 4) YOGA: sign. improvement; EX/WL: n.s. 6) n.s. n.a.
Duraiswamy et al., 2007 [43] 61 patients with Schizophrenia according to DSM IV CGI≥4 YOGA 32.5±7.9 y EX 31.3±7.9 y Antipsychotic drugs Yogasana (YOGA) 4 months Month 1: 25x45 minutes instructed SVYASA Yoga(loosening exercises, postures, breathing, relaxation, no meditation) Month 2-4: home-based training 1. Exercise (EX) 4 months Month 1: 25x45 min. instructed physical exercise (walking, jogging, postures, relaxation) Month 2-4: home-based training 4 months 1) PANSS a) positive symptoms b) negative symptoms c) total 2) WHO QOL-BREF a) physical b) psychological c) social d) environmental 4) SOFS total 6) Simpson Angus Scale for Extrapyramidal Symptoms 1) a) n.s. b) YOGA > EX c) YOGA > EX. 2) a) YOGA > EX b) YOGA > EX c) YOGA > EX d) YOGA > EX 4) YOGA > EX 6) n.s. n.a.
Vancampfort et al., 2011 [44] 49 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder CGI≥4 Women: 32.8±8.9 y Men: 31.8±8.7 y Hospital inpatient treatment Hatha yoga (YOGA) Single 30-minutes session Bodily postures, coordination, strength, flexibility, balance, breath awareness, relaxation. 1. Exercise (EX) Single 20-minutes session Ergometer training 2. Usual care (UC) Single 20-minutes session Reading Immediately 2) SEES 2) YOGA > UC n.a.
Visceglia et al., 2011 [45] 18 patients with schizophrenia YOGA: 37.4±13.7 y WL: 48.1±11.2 y Hospital inpatient treatment Yoga (YOGA) 8 weeks: 2 x 45 minutes per week Stretching, movements, breathing, relaxation Usual care (UC) 8 weeks 8 weeks 1) PANSS a) positive symptoms b) negative symptoms c) total 2) WHO QOL-BREF a) physica b) psychological c) environmental 4) WHO QOL-BREF 6) adverse events 1.) a) YOGA > UC b) YOGA > UC c) YOGA > UC 2) a) YOGA > UC b) YOGA > UC c) n.s. 4) n.s. 6) n.s. n.a.
Xie et al., 2006 [46] 90 patients with schizophrenia according to CCMD-3 YOGA: 28.2±8.3 y UC: 30.5±9.4 y Antipsychotic drugs Yoga (YOGA) 8 weeks 4-5x60 minutes per week Bodily postures, breathing techniques, meditation, relaxation Usual care (UC) 8 weeks 8 weeks 2) GQOLI-74 a) material life b) physical function c) psychological function 4) GQOLI-74 2) a) n.s. b) YOGA > UC c) YOGA > UC 4) YOGA > UC n.a.
  1. Abbreviations: > – significant group difference; CCMD Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, GQOLI-74 General Quality of Life Inventory-74, DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, n.a. not assessed, n.s. not significant, PANSS The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, SEES Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale, SOFS Socio-Occupational Functioning Scale, TRACS TREND Accuracy Scale, TREND Tool for Recognition of Emotions in Neuropsychiatric Disorders, WHO QOL-BREF WHO Quality of Life-BREF quality of life assessment, y - years.