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Table 3 Mood, substance use, bullying and school connectedness in the development of self-harm for boys and girls

From: Self-harm in young adolescents (12–16 years): onset and short-term continuation in a community sample

Boys
Variable Level No self-harm thoughts at time 1 Developed self-harm thoughts at time 2 Adjusted OR* (95% CI) Overall p-value Adjusted OR* (95% CI) from MI Multiple adjusted ORT (95% CI)
Alcohol Never/1 or 2x 1399 88 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  2/4 + per mth 277 32 2.26 (1.43, 3.57)   2.09 (1.34, 3.28) 1.56 (0.91, 2.67)
Cannabis Never used 1556 103 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  Used 119 18 2.84 (1.61, 4.99)   2.59 (1.52, 4.41) 2.24 (1.12, 4.48)
Drugs Never used 1660 119 1.0 0.467 1.0 1.0
  Used 18 2 1.74 (0.39, 7.73)   2.14 (0.55, 8.36) 0.57 (0.11, 2.92)
Bullied Never/1 or 2x 1609 107 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  2/3 + per mth 72 14 3.40 (1.83, 6.32)   3.11 (1.70, 5.67) 1.82 (0.84, 3.94)
Bullying others Never 1379 88 1.0 0.002 1.0 1.0
  Regularly 290 34 1.94 (1.27, 2.96)   1.81 (1.17, 2.80) 1.29 (0.79, 2.10)
Peer attachment Secure 1392 88 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  Avoidant 75 10 2.25 (1.12, 4.55)   2.11 (1.06, 4.20) 1.43 (0.67, 3.06)
  Anxious 59 12 3.77 (1.93, 7.38)   3.02 (1.57, 5.81) 1.75 (0.79, 3.89)
Baseline MFQ 0 – 4 1481 83 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  5+ 202 38 4.01 (2.63, 6.10)   4.08 (2.78, 5.98) 2.82 (1.71, 4.65)
Baseline School connectedness ≤24 182 26 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  25+ 1502 96 0.41 (0.26, 0.66)   0.41 (0.26, 0.64) 0.55 (0.31, 0.95)
Alcohol Never/1 or 2x 1536 73 1.0 0.053 1.0 1.0
  2/4 + per mth 295 21 1.68 (0.99, 2.86)   1.60 (0.97, 2.63) 1.29 (0.69, 2.41)
Cannabis Never used 1698 81 1.0 0.022 1.0 1.0
  Used 132 12 2.16 (1.12, 4.17)   2.17 (1.12, 4.19) 1.21 (0.50, 2.89)
Drugs Never used 1806 87 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  Used 23 6 7.47 (2.84, 19.66)   5.37 (1.97, 14.63) 5.95 (1.75, 20.25)
Bullied Never/1 or 2x 1726 76 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  2/3 + per mth 109 18 4.28 (2.45, 7.50)   3.66 (2.09, 6.42) 2.42 (1.21, 4.86)
Bullying others Never 1482 60 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  Regularly 337 31 2.37 (1.51, 3.74)   2.17 (1.39, 3.38) 1.68 (0.99, 2.85)
Peer attachment Secure 1491 60 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  Avoidant 104 14 3.70 (1.99, 6.89)   2.88 (1.59, 5.20) 2.19 (1.07, 4.49)
  Anxious 84 9 2.87 (1.37, 6.01)   2.76 (1.32, 5.78) 1.16 (0.47, 2.86)
Baseline MFQ 0 – 4 1533 53 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  5+ 305 41 4.38 (2.85, 6.73)   3.98 (2.71, 5.85) 2.24 (1.29, 3.87)
Baseline School connectedness ≤24 238 28 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  25+ 1603 66 0.33 (0.20, 0.52)   0.32 (0.19, 0.54) 0.58 (0.32, 1.06)
Girls
Variable Level No self-harm thoughts at time 1 Developed self-harm thoughts at time 2 Adjusted OR* (95% CI) Overall p-value Adjusted OR* (95% CI) from MI Multiple adjusted OR T (95% CI)
Alcohol Never/1 or 2x 1271 134 1.0 0.064 1.0 1.0
  2/4 + per mth 226 33 1.50 (0.98, 2.32)   1.61 (1.06, 2.45) 1.32 (0.80, 2.17)
Cannabis Never used 1416 154 1.0 0.158 1.0 1.0
  Used 82 13 1.58 (0.84, 3.00)   1.63 (0.86, 3.09) 1.59 (0.74, 3.40)
Drugs Never used 1485 167 1.0 0.541 1.0 1.0
  Used 16 1 0.53 (0.07, 4.08)   0.87 (0.15, 5.08) 0.23 (0.03, 2.03)
Bullied Never/1 or 2x 1431 154 1.0 0.067 1.0 1.0
  2/3 + per mth 67 12 1.83 (0.96, 3.51)   2.04 (1.14, 3.64) 0.98 (0.43, 2.24)
Bullying others Never 1350 149 1.0 0.700 1.0 1.0
  Regularly 148 18 1.11 (0.66, 1.87)   1.27 (0.78, 2.07) 0.59 (0.31, 1.10)
Peer attachment Secure 1255 130 1.0 0.037 1.0 1.0
  Avoidant 100 17 1.76 (1.01, 3.07)   1.87 (1.08, 3.22) 1.07 (0.57, 1.99)
  Anxious 63 11 1.84 (0.94, 3.62)   2.44 (1.26, 4.73) 1.13 (0.55, 2.31)
Baseline MFQ 0 – 4 1127 87 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  5+ 377 81 3.36 (2.41, 4.70)   3.67 (2.68, 5.04) 3.30 (2.25, 4.84)
Baseline School connectedness ≤24 195 37 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  25+ 1294 128 0.47 (0.31, 0.70)   0.45 (0.31, 0.66) 0.75 (0.46, 1.21)
Alcohol Never/1 or 2x 1463 93 1.0 0.038 1.0 1.0
  2/4 + per mth 263 27 1.65 (1.03, 2.66)   1.63 (1.06, 2.52) 1.03 (0.59, 1.82)
Cannabis Never used 1637 104 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  Used 91 17 3.33 (1.84, 6.03)   2.76 (1.61, 4.73) 2.92 (1.37, 6.25)
Drugs Never used 1711 118 1.0 0.263 1.0 1.0
  Used 20 3 2.06 (0.58, 7.29)   2.65 (0.89, 7.90) 0.53 (0.10, 2.69)
Bullied Never/1 or 2x 1615 104 1.0 0.002 1.0 1.0
  2/3 + per mth 112 16 2.49 (1.41, 4.40)   2.51 (1.50, 4.18) 0.98 (0.49, 1.96)
Bullying Others Never 1534 96 1.0 0.002 1.0 1.0
  Regularly 192 24 2.13 (1.32, 3.43)   2.16 (1.36, 3.45) 1.19 (0.68, 2.09)
Peer attachment Secure 1389 75 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  Avoidant 144 17 2.30 (1.32, 4.02)   2.37 (1.38, 4.08) 1.15 (0.61, 2.16)
  Anxious 97 20 4.58 (2.65, 7.90)   4.67 (2.71, 8.01) 2.72 (1.49, 4.99)
Baseline MFQ 0 – 4 1201 42 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  5+ 532 79 4.84 (3.26, 7.17)   5.33 (3.65, 7.78) 3.63 (2.28, 5.78)
Baseline School connectedness ≤24 266 40 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  25+ 1453 78 0.32 (0.21, 0.48)   0.34 (0.23, 0.50) 0.62 (0.38, 1.02)
  1. *ORs adjusted for age and trial arm.
  2. TORs adjusted for age, trial arm and all other variables.
  3. MI = Multiple Imputation.