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Table 4 Substance use, bullying and school connectedness and the continuation of self-harming thoughts/behaviour, for boys and girls

From: Self-harm in young adolescents (12–16 years): onset and short-term continuation in a community sample

Boys
Variable Level Self-harm thoughts at time 1 No self-harm thoughts at time 2 Adjusted OR* (95% CI) Overall p-value Adjusted OR* (95% CI) from MI Multiple adjusted ORT (95% CI)
Alcohol Never/1 or 2x 193 107 1.0 0.515 1.0 1.0
  2/4 + per mth 103 52 0.85 (0.51, 1.40)   1.07 (0.62, 1.83) 0.53 (0.29, 0.98)
Cannabis Never used 228 117 1.0 0.102 1.0 1.0
  Used 69 42 1.63 (0.91, 2.91)   1.89 (1.09, 3.28) 1.99 (0.98, 4.05)
Drugs Never used 282 151 1.0 0.285 1.0 1.0
  Used 17 11 1.77 (0.62, 5.05)   2.12 (0.76, 5.86) 1.50 (0.47, 4.76)
Bullied Never/1 or 2x 240 120 1.0 0.005 1.0 1.0
  2/3 + per mth 61 43 2.38 (1.30, 4.37)   2.44 (1.35, 4.42) 2.12 (1.09, 4.15)
Bullying others Never 203 101 1.0 0.021 1.0 1.0
  Regularly 97 62 1.80 (1.09, 2.97)   1.72 (1.06, 2.80) 1.57 (0.92, 2.67)
School connectedness ≤24 136 86 1.0 0004 1.0 1.0
  25+ 161 75 0.50 (0.31, 0.80)   0.44 (0.28, 0.69) 0.66 (0.40, 1.09)
Alcohol Never/1 or 2x 74 33 1.0 0.698 1.0 1.0
  2/4 + per mth 64 28 1.15 (0.56, 2.39)   1.37 (0.68, 2.73) 0.93 (0.40, 2.14)
Cannabis Never used 95 38 1.0 0.060 1.0 1.0
  Used 42 22 2.19 (0.97,4.95)   2.32 (1.05, 5.16) 1.90 (0.72, 4.98)
Drugs Never used 128 56 1.0 0.242 1.0 1.0
  Used 11 6 2.20 (0.59, 8.30)   2.66 (0.79, 9.02) 1.73 (0.39, 7.58)
Bullied Never/1 or 2x 110 45 1.0 0.155 1.0 1.0
  2/3 + per mth 30 17 1.82 (0.80, 4.13)   2.10 (0.92, 4.84) 1.95 (0.77, 4.94)
Bullying others Never 89 37 1.0 0.262 1.0 1.0
  Regularly 49 25 1.50 (0.74, 3.06)   1.32 (0.66, 2.64) 1.15 (0.52, 2.54)
School connectedness ≤24 67 34 1.0 0.154 1.0 1.0
  25+ 73 28 0.61 (0.31, 1.20)   0.46 (0.24, 0.87) 1.07 (0.48, 2.39)
Girls
Variable Level Self-harm thoughts at time 1 No self-harm thoughts at time 2 Adjusted OR* (95% CI) Overall p-value Adjusted OR* (95% CI) from MI Multiple adjusted OR T (95% CI)
Alcohol Never/1 or 2x 316 182 1.0 0.001 1.0 1.0
  2/4 + per mth 146 109 2.16 (1.37. 3.39)   2.07 (1.31, 3.27) 1.64 (0.99, 2.71)
Cannabis Never used 394 234 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  Used 68 57 3.48 (1.76, 6.90)   2.76 (1.51, 5.06) 2.75 (1.21, 6.21)
Drugs Never used 441 275 1.0 0.229 1.0 1.0
  Used 21 16 1.88 (0.67, 5.23)   2.07 (0.77, 5.53) 0.50 (0.14, 1.74)
Bullied Never/1 or 2x 395 239 1.0 0.006 1.0 1.0
  2/3 + per mth 69 53 2.32 (1.27, 4.24)   2.39 (1.31, 4.34) 1.86 (0.96, 3.62)
Bullying others Never 360 222 1.0 0.299 1.0 1.0
  Regularly 105 70 1.28 (0.81, 2.02)   1.48 (0.95, 2.31) 1.12(0.68, 1.86)
School connectedness ≤24 201 155 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  25+ 266 138 0.32 (0.21, 0.48)   0.30 (0.20, 0.44) 0.36 (0.23, 0.56)
Alcohol Never/1 or 2x 132 77 1.0 0.276 1.0 1.0
  2/4 + per mth 98 64 1.36 (0.78, 2.37)   1.38 (0.82, 2.32) 1.00 (0.53, 1.90)
Cannabis Never used 179 102 1.0 0.023 1.0 1.0
  Used 53 40 2.26 (1.12, 4.59)   2.18 (1.17, 4.05) 2.12 (0.88, 5.11)
Drugs Never used 216 131 1.0 0.483 1.0 1.0
  Used 17 12 1.47 (0.50, 4.36)   1.96 (0.73, 5.25) 0.52 (0.13, 2.03)
Bullied Never/1 or 2x 196 116 1.0 0.043 1.0 1.0
  2/3 + per mth 37 28 2.34 (1.03, 5.35)   2.51 (1.15, 5.44) 1.53 (0.63, 2.87)
Bullying others Never 175 102 1.0 0.084 1.0 1.0
  Regularly 59 42 1.76 (0.93, 3.36)   1.35 (0.73, 2.49) 1.84 (0.92, 3.75)
School connectedness ≤24 115 88 1.0 <0.001 1.0 1.0
  25+ 120 57 0.27 (0.15, 0.48)   0.26 (0.15, 0.48) 0.30 (0.16, 0.55)
  1. *ORs adjusted for age and trial arm.
  2. TORs adjusted for age, trial arm and all other variables.
  3. MI = Multiple Imputation.