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Table 1 Characteristics of hospitalizations for patients with and without schizophrenia among medical and surgical hospitalizations, Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2003 to 2008 ab

From: Schizophrenia and potentially preventable hospitalizations in the United States: a retrospective cross-sectional study

   With Without
   schizophrenia schizophrenia
Characteristic (n = 182,423) (n = 15,092,914)
Median age, years 49.4 48.8
(inter-quartile range) 41.7-56.1 39.0-56.6
Sex, %    
  Male 55.0 47.1
  Female 45.0 52.9
Race, %   
  White 43.6 49.0
  Black 21.9 13.0
  Hispanic 6.7 8.4
  Other or missing 27.8 29.7
Insurance type, %   
  Medicare 47.4 15.5
  Medicaid 35.2 15.8
  Private 8.8 52.6
  Other 8.6 16.2
Median household income   
quartile for patient ZIP code, % c   
  Quartile 1 (lowest) 42.3 29.8
  Quartile 2 26.4 26.1
  Quartile 3 19.0 23.3
  Quartile 4 (highest) 12.3 20.8
Region of country for hospital, %   
  Northeast 22.5 19.4
  Midwest 24.7 22.6
  South 35.7 40.5
  West 17.1 17.5
Teaching hospital (vs. non-teaching) 49.6 47.6
Urban hospital location (vs. rural) 88.0 87.5
Hospital bed size d   
  Small 12 11.5
  Medium 25.3 24.3
  Large 62.7 64.2
Hospital volume, % e   
  Quartile 1 (lowest) 27.7 24.9
  Quartile 2 26.1 25.0
  Quartile 3 23.3 25.0
  Quartile 4 (highest) 22.9 25.0
Admission source, %   
  Emergency room 76.7 57.2
  Court or law enforcement 0.3 0.1
  Routine or other 23.0 42.7
Hospitalization characteristics, %   
  Elective admission (vs. non-elective) f 10.7 28.0
  Medical admission (vs. surgical) 71.3 54.6
  Against medical advice 3.5 1.6
  Death in hospital 1.6 1.4
Comorbid illness, %   
  Congestive heart failure 6.4 3.8
  Hypertension 40.2 36.6
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 25.1 14.0
  Liver disease 4.4 3.1
  Rheumatoid arthritis or collagen vascular diseases 1.0 2.0
  Diabetes mellitus or obesity 31.2 24.6
  Any malignancy 2.2 3.8
  HIV/AIDS 0.9 0.5
  Deficiency anemia 13.4 10.1
  Alcohol abuse 9.6 5.3
  Drug abuse 11.6 4.2
  Any substance abuse 17.4 8.3
Median length of stay, days 3.1 2.3
(inter-quartile range) 1.5-5.9 1.1-4.4
  1. a Results are nationally weighted and account for stratified sampling.
  2. b All characteristics are significantly different except urban/rural and bed size for 18–64; urban/rural, liver for 65+ group.
  3. c Quartile cut-offs vary from year to year. Please see documentation at http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov.
  4. d Cutoff points for bed size were made so that approximately one-third of the hospitals in a given region, location, and teaching status combination would fall within each bed size category.
  5. e Cut-offs for hospital volume quartiles in all hospitalizations are 8722, 16746, and 26080; among 18–64 they are 9676, 18033, and 27707; and among 65+ they are 7870, 15494, and 24577.
  6. f Non-elective admissions include emergency, urgent, newborn, delivery, and trauma.