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Table 1 Population characteristics, BiB Cohort

From: The psychometric properties of the subscales of the GHQ-28 in a multi-ethnic maternal sample: results from the Born in Bradford cohort

Language of administration and ethnic group English (White) English (Pakistani) English (Other) Mirpuri (Pakistani & Other) Urdu (Pakistani & Other) Total
  N = 2104 (41.3%) N = 1480 (29.1%) N = 626 (12.3%) N = 219 (4.3%) N = 660 (13.0%) N = 5089* (100%)
Age at recruitment (years), mean (SD) 26.5 (6.1) 27.3 (4.9) 28.3 (5.5) 28.1 (5.6) 27.6 (5.2) 27.2 (5.6)
Cohort baby is first child, N (%) 1,023 (48.6) 511 (34.6) 265 (42.3) 54 (24.7) 188 (24.5) 2,041 (40.1)
Born in UK, N (%) 1,962 (93.3) 1,014 (68.5) 270 (56.5) 4 (1.9) 8 (1.3) 3,258 (66.5)
Age at migration for non-UK born (years), median (IQR) 22 (15 to 25) 17 (4 to 21) 24 (19 to 27) 21 (19 to 24) 21 (19 to 24) 21 (18 to 24)
Antenatal GHQ-28 scores       
Total score, mean (SD), median (IQR)**       
Likert method 22.9 (9.9) 26.2 (11.7) 24.7 (11.8) 19.3 (8.5) 21.5 (9.4) 23.7 (10.7)
22 (16 to 29) 25 (17 to 34) 23 (16 to 31) 18 (13 to 24) 20 (14 to 27) 22 (16 to 30)
GHQ method 5.4 (4.9) 7.0 (5.9) 6.3 (5.9) 4.5 (4.3) 5.9 (4.6) 6.0 (5.3)
4 (1 to 8) 6 (2 to 11) 5 (2 to 9) 3 (1 to 7) 5 (2 to 9) 5 (2 to 9)
≥6 (GHQ method), N (%) 788 (39.4) 681 (50.7) 259 (45.5) 60 (29.3) 290 (45.6) 2,078 (43.7)
missing total score, N (%) 106 (5.0) 136 (9.2) 57 (9.1) 14 (6.4) 24 (3.6) 306 (6.6)
Subscale scores (Likert), median (IQR)       
A Somatic symptoms 6 (4 to 9) 8 (5 to 11) 7 (4 to 10) 7 (4 to 9) 8 (5 to 11) 7 (4 to 10)
B Anxiety and Insomnia 7 (3 to 10) 8 (4 to 11) 7 (3 to 10) 4 (1 to 7) 4 (1 to 8) 6 (3 to 10)
C Social dysfunction 7 (7 to 9) 8 (7 to 10) 8 (7 to 10) 7 (7 to 8) 7 (7 to 9) 8 (7 to 9)
D Severe depression 0 (0 to 2) 1 (0 to 3) 1 (0 to 3) 1 (0 to 1) 1 (0 to 1) 0 (0 to 2)
  1. * Includes those with at least one intact GHQ-28 subscale and the language of administration, N presented may not total 5089 due to small amounts of missing data, ** total scores have more missing data but are not used in the analysis, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range.