Skip to main content

Table 2 Population characteristics, BiB1000

From: The psychometric properties of the subscales of the GHQ-28 in a multi-ethnic maternal sample: results from the Born in Bradford cohort

Language of administration and ethnic group English (White) English (Pakistani) Urdu (Pakistani) English (Other) Total
  N = 469 (42.8%) N = 369 (33.7%) N = 103 (9.4%) N = 154 (14.1%) N = 1095* (100%)
Age at recruitment (years), mean (SD) 27.0 (6.1) 27.2 (4.8) 28.2 (5.9) 28.8 (5.5) 27.4 (5.6)
Cohort baby is first child, N (%) 229 (48.8) 132 (35.9) 27 (26.5) 64 (41.6) 452 (41.4)
Born in UK, N (%) 463 (98.7) 248 (67.4) 0 66 (55.5) 777 (73.4)
Age at migration for non-UK born (years), median (IQR) 3 (1 to 3) 17 (4 to 21) 21 (19 to 25) 23 (16 to 26) 20 (12 to 24)
Antenatal GHQ-28 scores      
Total score, mean (SD), median (IQR)**      
Likert method 23.4 (10.1) 26.3 (11.7) 24.1 (9.2) 25.1 (12.1) 24.7 (10.9)
22 (16 to 29) 25 (18 to 34) 23 (18 to 28) 24 (15 to 32) 23 (17 to 31)
GHQ method 5.6 (0.23) 6.9 (0.32) 7.1 (0.45) 6.5 (0.48) 6.3 (0.17)
5 (2 to 8) 6 (2 to 11) 6 (4 to 10) 5 (1 to 11) 5 (2 to 9)
≥6 (GHQ method), N (%) 194 (43.1) 180 (52.0) 59 (58.4) 68 (46.0) 501 (47.9)
missing total score, N (%) 19 (4.1) 23 (6.2) 2 (1.9) 6 (4.0) 50 (4.6)
Subscale scores (Likert), median IQR      
A Somatic symptoms 7 (4 to 9) 8 (5 to 10) 10 (7 to 13) 7 (4 to 10) 7 (5 to 10)
B Anxiety and Insomnia 7 (4 to 10) 7 (4 to 11) 5 (2 to 9) 7 (3 to 11) 7 (4 to 10)
C Social dysfunction 7 (7 to 9) 8 (7 to 10) 8 (7 to 9) 8 (7 to 10) 8 (7 to 9)
D Severe depression 0 (0 to 2) 1 (0 to 3) 0 (0 to 1) 1 (0 to 3) 0 (0 to 2)
Postnatal GHQ-28 scores      
Total score, mean (SD), median (IQR)**      
Likert method 15.9 (9.2) 17.2 (10.2) 16.6 (9.3) 15.4 (9.0) 16.3 (9.5)
13 (9 to 20) 14 (10 to 22) 14 (10 to 21) 13 (9 to 20) 14 (10 to 21)
GHQ method 2.4 (3.9) 3.0 (4.3) 3.9 (4.4) 2.3 (3.6) 2.7 (4.1)
1 (0 to 3) 1 (0 to 4) 2 (1 to 6) 1 (0 to 3) 1 (0 to 4)
≥6 (GHQ method), N (%) 72 (16.0) 63 (18.6) 26 (26.5) 23 (15.8) 184 (17.8)
missing total score, N (%) 20 (4.3) 30 (8.1) 5 (4.9) 8 (5.2) 63 (5.8)
Subscale scores (Likert), median IQR      
A Somatic symptoms 4 (2 to 6) 5 (3 to 7) 6 (4 to 8) 3 (2 to 6) 4 (2 to 7)
B Anxiety and Insomnia 3 (1 to 6) 3 (1 to 7) 3 (0 to 6) 3 (0 to 6) 3 (1 to 6)
C Social dysfunction 7 (6 to 7) 7 (5 to 7) 7 (5 to 7) 7 (5 to 7) 7 (6 to 7)
D Severe depression 0 (0 to 1) 0 (0 to 1) 0 (0 to 1) 0 (0 to 1) 0 (0 to 1)
  1. * Includes those with at least one intact GHQ-28 subscale from each time point and the same language of administration both times, N presented may not total 1095 due to small amounts of missing data, ** total scores have more missing data but are not used in the analysis, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range.