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Table 5 Invariance testing on reduced GHQ-28 item subscales for the BiB Cohort

From: The psychometric properties of the subscales of the GHQ-28 in a multi-ethnic maternal sample: results from the Born in Bradford cohort

  English (Pakistani) English (White) English (Other) Mirpuri (Pakistani & Other)
Reduced Somatic subscale A (Items 1–4)     
English (White) L: 0.001, -0.006    
I: 0.024, -0.016
English (Other) L: 0.000, -0.005 L:- 0.001, -0.001   
I: 0.008, -0.021 I: 0.020, -0.015
Mirpuri (Pakistani & Other) L: 0.002, -0.008 L: 0.000, -0.003 L: 0.000, -0.008  
I: 0.033, -0.029 I: 0.024, -0.022 I: 0.065, -0.044
Urdu (Pakistani & Other) L: 0.009, -0.019 L: 0.008, -0.017 L: 0.006, -0.017 L: 0.003, -0.014
  I: 0.033, -0.012 I: 0.016, -0.009 I: 0.054, -0.021 I: 0.062, -0.035
Reduced Anxiety and Insomnia subscale B (Items 10–13)     
English (White) L: 0.001, -0.003    
L: 0.007, 0.017
English (Other) L: 0.000, -0.001 L: 0.001, -0.004   
L: 0.000, 0.005 I: 0.012, -0.007
Mirpuri (Pakistani & Other) L: 0.002, -0.002 L: 0.002, -0.004 L: 0.001, -0.003  
I: -0.027, 0.043 I: -0.004, 0.018 I: -0.014, 0.028
Urdu (Pakistani & Other) L: 0.020, -0.008 L: 0.019, -0.013 L: 0.031, -0.005 L: -0.005, -0.006
  I: -0.029, 0.053 I: 0.013, 0.017 I: 0.025, 0.032 I: 0.005, -0.004
Reduced Social Dysfunction subscale C (Items 15–19)     
English (White) L: 0.006, -0.015    
I: 0.004, 0.002
English (Other) L: -0.002, -0.003 L: 0.002, -0.008   
I: 0.004, -0.002 I: 0.011, -0.006
Mirpuri (Pakistani & Other) L: -0.003, -0.006 L: 0.003, -0.010 L: -0.002, -0.012  
I: 0.015, -0.009 I: 0.019, -0.010 I: 0.021, -0.009
Urdu (Pakistani & Other) L: 0.000, -0.011 L: 0.007, -0.016 L: 0.003, -0.008 L: -0.009, -0.004
  I: 0.019, -0.004 I: 0.030, -0.007 I: 0.021, -0.007 I: 0.016, -0.011
Reduced Severe Depression subscale D (Items 23–26)     
English (White) L: 0.002, -0.010    
I: 0.062, -0.052
English (Other) L: -0.003, -0.002 L: -0.008, -0.003   
I: 0.008, -0.006 I: 0.054, -0.032
Mirpuri (Pakistani & Other) L: 0.001, -0.008 L: 0.001, -0.004 L: -0.008, -0.005  
I: 0.022, -0.017 I: 0.006, 0.000 I: 0.067, -0.023
Urdu (Pakistani & Other) L: 0.003, -0.008 L: -0.008, -0.004 L: -0.012, -0.007 L: 0.003, -0.008
  I: 0.010, -0.002 I: 0.015, -0.004 I: 0.070, -0.019 I: 0.001, -0.002
  1. Numbers indicate change in CFI, SRMR from less restrictive model, bolded items indicate invariance not achieved, L factor loadings constrained to be equal, I intercepts constrained to be equal.