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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study sample and associations with PHQ-15 scores (N=5,031)

From: Standardization of a screening instrument (PHQ-15) for somatization syndromes in the general population

  N (%) PHQ-15 score M (SD) Group differencesap-value Cohen’s d, effect-size
Gender    χ2(28)=144.5; p<0.001 d=0.22
Male 2332 (46.4) 3.4 (4.0)   
Female 2699 (53.6) 4.3 (4.1)   
Age group, yr    χ2(6)=425.1; p<0.001 d=0.91
14-24 564 (11.2) 2.4 (3.5)   
25-34 630 (12.5) 2.8 (3.5)   
35-44 938 (18.6) 3.2 (3.7)   
45-54 871 (17.3) 3.6 (3.8)   
55-64 844 (16.8) 4.5 (4.1)   
65-74 792 (15.7) 4.8 (4.2)   
≥ 75 392 (7.8) 6.3 (4.9)   
Living with a partner    χ2(28)=34.5; p=0.75 -
Yes 2927 (58.3) 3.8 (3.9)   
No 2092 (41.7) 4.0 (4.2)   
Education    χ2(4)=123.3; p<0.001 d=0.74
None 91 (1.8) 5.1 (4.5)   
Highschool 3878 (77.3) 3.9 (3.9)   
College 525 (10.5) 3.7 (4.0)   
University 344 (6.9) 3.3 (3.3)   
Currently student 181 (3.6) 2.2 (3.2)   
Unemployment     
Yes 297 (5.9) 4.3 (4.2) χ2(28)=52.4; p=0.003 d=0.12
No 4722 (94.1) 3.8 (4.1)   
Net household incomeb     
<1250 € / mo 1301 (27.3) 4.8 (4.4) χ2(2)=143.2; p<0.001 d=0.45
1250-<2500 € / mo 2499 (52.5) 3.7 (3.9)   
≥ 2500 € / mo 964 (20.2) 2.9 (4.0)   
  1. a Group differences were performed using χ2-test and Kruskal-Wallis-test (p<0.001).
  2. b USD$1=EUR€0.77.