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Table 2 Characteristics of N= 31 studies included in the current meta-analysis

From: A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies

Study; Country Design* TotalN(Nin this study**) Sample type Sampling method Anxiety assessment; diagnostic system Anxiety diagnosis (timeframe) Anxiety prevalence Cannabis assessment; diagnostic system Cannabis use; CUD (timeframe) Cannabis use/CUD prevalence
Agosti et al., 2002; NCS, USA [26] Cross-sectional 8098 General population Probability CIDI DSM-III-R AD (current) CIDI DSM-III-R Use (past month); CD (lifetime)
Beard et al., 2006; NoRMHS, Australia [27] Longitudinal 9191 (1013) General population Random CIDI ICD-10 PD, SP, OCD (at T1) 15% (at T1) CIDI ICD-10 CUD (at T0) CUD 3% (at T0)
Brook et al., 1998; Upstate NY, USA [28] Longitudinal 975 (T3 = 745 T4 = 698) Adolescents- adults Random DISC DSM-III-R SA, OAD, SAD (at T4) DISC DSM-III-R Never- ≥ weekly (at T3) Use (at T3): 56% never 9% ≥ weekly
Brook et al., 2001; Colombia [29] Longitudinal 2226 Adolescents Random HSC AD (at T1, T2) Interview Non-regular- regular (≥monthly; lifetime)
Buckner et al., 2008; Oregon, USA [30] Longitudinal T1 = 1709 T4 = 816 High school students Random K-SADS DSM-III-R SAD (at T1) 2% (at T1) LIFE, SCID-I/NP DSM-IV CD (at T4) CD 6% (at T4)
Buckner & Schmidt, 2008; USA [31] Cross-sectional 337 (214) Undergraduate students Random SIAS Equivalent to SAD 19% (scores in clinical range) Questionnaire Never- frequent (≥weekly; lifetime) 31% never 32% frequent
Buckner et al., 2012; USA [32] Cross-sectional 343 (200) Adult tobacco smokers Random SIAS Equivalent to SAD Questionnaire Never- current (daily; past month) 19% never 39% current use; 13% current daily
Cascone et al., 2011; Switzerland [33] Cross-sectional 110 Adolescents in schools/psycho-educational unit Convenience STAI-Y B Trait anxiety ADAD DSM-IV-TR Use (past month) CD (past 12 months) Past month: No CD: 94% none CD: 66% daily
Chabrol et al., 2005; France [34] Cross-sectional 212 High school and college students Random STAI A State anxiety Questionnaire DSM-IV Past 6 months: None- > daily; CD 46% none 23% > daily
Chabrol et al., 2008; France [35] Cross-sectional 248 High school students Random STAI A State anxiety Interview None- use ≥1× (past 6 months) 76% none 24% users
Cheung et al., 2010; CAMH, Canada [36] Cross-sectional cycles of 2001–2006 survey 14531 (13478) General population Probability GHQ12 ≥4/12 symptoms AMD (past 12 months) 9% (past 12 months) Interview None- daily (past 12 months)
Cougle et al., 2011; NCS-R, USA [37] Cross-sectional 5672 General population Stratified probability CIDI DSM-IV PTSD (lifetime) 7% (lifetime) CIDI Never- use ≥1× (lifetime) 42% users (lifetime)
Crum et al., 1993; ECA, USA [38] Longitudinal 18572 (577) General population Probability DIS DSM-III OCD (past 12 months) 1% (past 12 months) DIS No use- use ≥6× (past 12 months) 84% no drug use 9% cannabis
Degenhardt et al., 2001; NSMHWB, Australia [39] Cross-sectional 10641 General population Stratified random CIDI DSM-IV SAD, AP, PD, GAD, OCD, PTSD (past 12 months) 6% (past 12 months) CIDI DSM-IV Past 12 months: No use- use ≥5×; CD Past 12 months: 5% users 2% CD
Degenhardt et al., 2010; VAHCS, Australia [40] Longitudinal 1943 (1520, wave 1–8) High school students Stratified random GHQ12 > 2 symptoms (at 24) AMD (at 24) 21% (at 24) Interview None- weekly+ (past 6 months at 15–17) 34% users (at 15–17)
Degenhardt et al., 2013; VAHCS, Australia [41] Longitudinal 1943 (1756, wave 1–9) High school students Stratified random CIDI ICD-10 GAD, SAD, PD, AP (past 12 months at 29) 11% (at 29) CIDI ICD-10 None/<weekly- weekly + (past 6–12 months at 15–29); CD (past 12 months at 29) Lifetime: 67% none/ <weekly 2% weekly+ 4% CD (at 29)
Fergusson et al., 1996; CHDS, New Zealand [42] Longitudinal 1265 (927) Adolescents (16 years) Stratified DISC/DIS DSM-III-R GAD, OAD, SA (at 15–16) 9% (at 15–16) Interview None- use (past 12 months at 15–16) 20% users (at 15–16)
Hayatbakhsh et al., 2007; MUSP, Australia [43] Longitudinal 7223 (3157) Adult children of mothers in study Convenience YASR (resembles DSM-III-R) AMD (at 21) Interview Never used drugs- frequent ≤ daily
(past month)
12% frequent
Lamers et al., 2006; USA [44] Cross-sectional 41 (30) General population Convenience BAI BAI scores Questionnaire urine screen None (past 12 months)- use ≥10× (lifetime) 50% non-users 50% users
Low et al., 2008; USA [45] Cross-sectional 632 Adolescents in primary care Convenience PRIME-MD DSM-IV PD, GAD, AD (past 1–6 months) 7% (past 1–6 months) PRIME-MD DSM-IV CA (past 6 months) 6% CA
Martins & Gorelick, 2011; NESARC, USA [46] Cross-sectional 43093 General population Stratified random AUDADIS DSM-IV PD, AP, SP, GAD (lifetime) 17% (lifetime) AUDADIS DSM-IV CA + CD (lifetime)
McGee et al., 2000; DMHDS, New Zealand [47] Longitudinal 1037 (891) Adolescents (at 15) Convenience DISC DSM-III Internalising disorders (AMD; at 15) 12% (at 15) Interview None- use ≥1 (past 12 months) 14% users (at 15)
NPMS, UK; appendix, Moore et al., 2007 [10] Longitudinal 8580 (1578) Adults (at 16–74) Random CIS-R ≥ 12 AMD 11% CIS-R ≥12 Interview Use: no/yes (lifetime); CD (past 12 months): no/yes 16% users 2% CD
Patton et al., 2002; VAHCS, Australia [48] Longitudinal 1943 (1601, wave 1–7) High school students Stratified random CIS-R ≥ 12 at 21 AMD (at 21) 16% (at 21) Interview None- < weekly (past 6 months at 15–17) 59% users (lifetime)
Roberts et al., 2007; TH2K, USA [49] Cross-sectional 4175 Adolescents Probability DISC DSM-IV AP, GAD, PD, SAD, PTSD (past 12 months) 7% (past 12 months) DISC DSM-IV CUD (past 12 months) 3% CUD (past 12 months)
Swift et al., 2008; VAHCS, Australia [50] Longitudinal 1943 (1520, wave 1–8) High school students Stratified random CIS-R > 11 AMD (at 15–17) Interview, CIDI DSM-IV Past 12 months at 24: None- weekly+; CD 28% weekly+ at 24 who used at 15-17
van der Pol et al., 2013; CanDep + NEMESIS-2, Netherlands [51] Cross-sectional 1324: D+: 252 N2: 1072 General population/ ‘coffee shop’ users (18–30) Stratified random; convenience/chain-referral CIDI DSM-IV SAD, PD, GAD, AP (past 12 months) 8% (past 12 months) CIDI DSM-IV No CD (group N2; none or <3×/week use)- CD (D+; use ≥3×/week) (past 12 months) 16% CD (past 12 months)
Van Laar et al., 2007; NEMESIS, Netherlands [52] Longitudinal T0: 7076 T2: 4848 General population Probability CIDI DSM-III-R PD, AP, SAD, SP, GAD, OCD (3-year incidence, T0-T2) 6% (at T0-T2) CIDI DSM-III-R No use- use >5× (lifetime at T0)
Wittchen et al., 2007; EDSP, Germany [53] Longitudinal T0: 1395 T3: 1019 (1310) General population Random CIDI DSM-IV PD, GAD, AP, SAD, SP, SA, OCD, PTSD (at T0) 23% (at T0) CIDI DSM-IV Use: no/yes (lifetime); CUD (lifetime) Lifetime: 54% use 13% CUD
Zvolensky et al., 2006; CSHS, USA [54] Cross-sectional 4745 General population Stratified random DIS DSM-IV-TR PA (lifetime) 6% (lifetime) DIS DSM-IV-TR Lifetime: No use- use ≥5×; CD Lifetime: 25% users 1% CD
Zvolensky et al., 2010; NCS-R, USA [55] Cross-sectional 5672 General population Stratified probability CIDI DSM-IV PD (lifetime) 6% (lifetime) CIDI None- use ≥1× (lifetime) 42% users (lifetime)
  1. Notes: All studies included males and females of any race. Abbreviations: AD = anxiety disorder; ADAD = Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (based on Addiction Severity Index); AMD = anxiety + depression; AP = agoraphobia; AUDADIS = Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule; BAI = Beck Anxiety Inventory; CA = cannabis abuse; CAMH = Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Monitor survey, Canada; CanDep = the Dutch Cannabis Dependence Study, Netherlands; CD = cannabis dependence; CHDS = Christchurch Health and Development Study, New Zealand; CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview; CIS-R = Clinical Interview Schedule- Revised; CSHS = Colorado Social Health Survey, USA; CUD = cannabis use disorder (abuse/harmful use and/or dependence); D + = frequent cannabis users with dependence in CanDep study; DIS = Diagnostic Interview Schedule; DISC = Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children; DMHDS = Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand; ECA = Epidemiological Catchment Area program, USA; EDSP = Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology study, Germany; GAD = generalized anxiety disorder; GHQ-12 = General Health Questionnaire (12 items); HSC = Hopkins Symptom Checklist; K-SADS = Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children; LIFE = Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation; MUSP = Mater University Study of Pregnancy, Brisbane, Australia; NCS = National Comorbidity Survey, USA; NCS-R = National Comorbidity Survey- Replication, USA; NEMESIS/NEMESIS-2 = Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (study 1: 1996–1999 and study 2: 2007–2009), N2 = NEMESIS-2 cases; Netherlands; NESARC = National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, USA; NoRMHS = the Northern Rivers Mental Health Study, New South Wales, Australia; NPMS = the British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, UK; NSMHWB = National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being, all states, Australia; OAD = overanxious disorder; OCD = obsessive compulsive disorder; PA = panic attacks; PD = panic disorder; PRIME-MD = Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder; SA = separation anxiety; SAD = social anxiety disorder/social phobia; SCID-I/NP = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, non-patient version; SIAS = Social Interaction Anxiety Scale; SP = specific phobias; STAI = State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; STAI-Y = STAI for Youth; STAI-Y A = STAI state anxiety subscale; STAI-Y B = STAI trait anxiety subscale; T = specific wave of data collection in longitudinal studies; TH2K = Teen Health 2000 Study, Houston, USA; VAHCS = Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia; YASR = Young Adult Self-Report.
  2. *Cross-sectional was chosen if the results were obtained from one data set (even if the study was longitudinal), longitudinal refers to studies that show data at different time points (waves).
  3. **Most studies did not specify the total N used to compute the ORs used in the current study.