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Table 4 Results of three random-effects meta-analyses on the association between anxiety vs. cannabis use or CUD and anxiety + depression vs. cannabis use

From: A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies

   Anxiety vs. use/no useN= 15 (Figure2) Anxiety vs. CUD/no CUD (or no use)N= 13 (Figure3) Anxiety + depression vs. use/no useN= 5 (Figure4)
Overall mean weighted OR OR (95% CI) p two-tailed 1.24 (1.06-1.45) .006* 1.68 (1.23-2.31) .001* 1.68 (1.17-2.40) .004*
Heterogeneity statistics Q(df) p two-tailed I 2 30 (14) .009* 53% 55 (12) <.0001* 78% 8 (4) .091 50%
One-study removed analysis (Additional file 1 : Figure S1) Which studies, removed one at a time from the analysis, remove the significance of the overall mean weighted OR? None None Cheung et al., 2010 [36]
Cumulative analysis (1993 to 2013) (Additional file 1 : Figure S2) Which studies, added to all previous studies one at a time, remove the significance of the overall mean weighted OR? Crum et al., 1993 [38]; Fergusson et al., 1996 [42] Degenhardt et al., 2001 [39] NPMS, 2007 [10]
Rosenthal’s Fail-safe N for p > .05 N studies needed to remove the significance of the overall mean weighted OR (N studies missing for every study in meta-analysis needed to remove the significance of the overall mean weighted OR) N=49 (49/15 = 3) N=105 (105/13 = 8) N=17 (17/5 = 3)
Duval and Tweedie’s Trim-and-Fill analysis Funnel plot symmetrical? N studies missing on either side of the overall mean weighted OR YES YES YES
N=0 N=0 N=0
Begg and Mazumdar Rank Order Correlation τ .13 -.19 -.30
p two-tailed .488 .360 .462
Egger’s regression intercept .25 1.73 −4.05
  p two-tailed .748 .005* .415
  1. Note: Figure numbers refer to forest plots and funnel plots for each analysis (Figures S1 and S2 can be found in the Additional file 1).
  2. Abbreviations: CUD cannabis use disorder (cannabis dependence and/or abuse/harmful use), NPMS the British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, UK; τ = Kendall’s correlation coefficient tau b with continuity correction.
  3. *p < .05.