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Table 3 Odds ratios for psychiatric distress at age 57, with and without adjustment for insomnia symptoms

From: Social class and gender patterning of insomnia symptoms and psychiatric distress: a 20-year prospective cohort study

  Model C: Predicting distress Model D: Predicting distress with adjustment for sleep
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Female gender (ref: Male) 1.45** (1.01-2.09) 1.24 (0.79-1.97)
Manual social class (ref: Non-manual) 1.03 (0.57-1.87) 0.92 (0.47-1.78)
GHQ (2+) at age 36 (ref: <2) 2.20** (1.55-3.13) 1.69** (1.16-2.47)
Gender and Social class interaction 2.00* (0.96-4.14) 2.16** (1.05-4.46)
Social class and GHQ Interaction 2.19** (1.08-4.45) 1.51 (0.71-3.20)
Episodic maintenance class (ref: Healthy)    2.90** (1.35-6.25)
Developing class (ref: Healthy)    4.09** (2.36-7.09)
Chronic mixed class (ref: Healthy)    9.23** (5.10-16.68)
  1. *p < 0.1.
  2. **p < 0.05.