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Table 3 Characteristics of mental health outcomes of mental health outcomes for the adult (25–64 years old) South Asian Canadian-born and South Asian immigrant populations, CCHS 2007-2011

From: South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

  Presence of a mood disorder Presence of an anxiety disorder
Canadian-born OR (95% CI) Immigrant OR (95% CI) Canadian-born OR (95% CI) Immigrant OR (95% CI)
SOCIO DEMO GRAPHIC
Gender 0.7 (0.2-2.1) 2.8 (1.5-5.1) 1.9 (0.6-5.8) 1.4 (0.7-2.9)
  Male (ref)     
  Female     
Age 1.1 (0.3-4.6) 1.7 (0.9-3.1) 1.1 (0.2-7.3) 1.4 (0.7-2.9)
  25-40     
  41-64 (ref)     
SOCIAL SUPPORT
Marital status 1.0 (0.2-4.4) 0.5 (0.2-1.2) 1.9 (0.4-10.2) 0.8 (0.3-2.3)
  Married/common-law (ref)     
  Not married     
Sense of belonging to community 0.9 (0.3-2.5) 1.1 (0.6-2.0) 1.2 (0.4-4.0) 1.0 (0.5-2.1)
  Strong (ref)     
  Weak     
Number of children in household under age of 12 1.5 (0.5-5.0) 0.6 (0.3-1.1) 1.4 (0.3-6.0) 1.0 (0.4-2.6)
  None (ref)     
  1 or more     
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
Highest level of education 0.4 (0.09-2.1) 0.8 (0.5-1.5) 1.8 (0.5-5.9) 0.6 (0.3-1.5)
  ≤ HS grad     
  ≥ some post-sec (ref)     
Income adequacy 3.6 (0.8-15.5) 1.4 (0.8-2.3) 2.6 (0.7-10.0) 1.3 (0.6-2.6)
  Low income household     
  Income adequate (ref)     
Food security # 2.7(1.5-5.0) # 1.8(0.7-4.5)
  Food insecure     
  Food secure (ref)     
Working status last week 2.8 (1.0-7.6) 1.3 (0.7-2.3) 1.5 (0.6-4.3) 1.9 (0.9-3.9)
  Employed (ref)     
 Not employed     
HEALTH & BEHAVIOR
Self-rated health status # 4.5 (2.4-8.4) # 5.3 (2.7-10.4)
  Good-excellent (ref)     
  Poor-Fair     
Presence of chronic conditions 1.9 (0.6-6.3) 1.7 (0.9-3.1) 1.8 (0.4-8.9) 1.4 (0.7-2.9)
  No conditions (ref)     
  1 or more conditions     
Having a regular medical doctor 2.1 (0.4-9.7) 0.4 (0.09-1.5) 0.2 (0.04-0.7) 0.5 (0.1-1.5)
  Yes (ref)     
  No     
Physical activity level 3.6 (1.5-8.7) 1.0 (0.6-1.8) 2.7 (0.9-7.9) 1.4 (0.7-2.8)
  Active (ref)     
  Inactive     
Current smoking status 1.2 (0.4-3.6) 2.6 (1.2-5.6) 3.4 (0.9-12.4) 2.2 (1.0-5.2)
  Yes     
  No (ref)     
ACCULTURATION
Length of stay in Canada 0.8 (0.4-1.4) 1.0 (0.4-2.4)
  0-9 years (ref)     
  10+ years     
Age at time of immigration 2.6 (1.2-5.3) 3.0 (1.4-6.5)
  ≤ 17 years old     
  18+ years old (ref)     
Language of CCHS interview 0.6 (0.1-2.2) 0.6 (0.1-3.5)
  English or French (ref)     
  Not English or French     
  Poor-fair self- perceived mental health status Extremely stressful self-reported life stress
Canadian-born OR (95% CI) Immigrant OR (95% CI) Canadian-born OR (95% CI) Immigrant OR (95% CI)
SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC
Gender 0.6 (0.2-1.7) 1.1 (0.6-1.9) 1.3 (0.31-5.9) 0.6 (0.4-1.1)
  Male (ref)     
  Female     
Age     
  25-40     
  41-64 (ref) 1.3 (0.3-5.2) 1.4 (0.7-2.8) 1.5 (0.4-6.8) 0.7 (0.3-1.2)
SOCIAL SUPPORT
Marital status 0.8 (0.2-3.4) 0.5 (0.2-1.3) 0.3 (0.04-1.7) 0.6 (0.2-1.5)
  Married/common-law (ref)     
  Not married     
Sense of belonging to community 1.1 (0.4-3.0) 1.6 (0.9-2.6) 1.7 (0.3-8.6) 1.0 (0.6-1.8)
  Strong (ref)     
  Weak     
Number of children in household under age of 12 2.1 (0.6-7.1) 0.5 (0.3-0.9) 0.8 (0.2-2.8) 1.1 (0.6-2.0)
  None (ref)     
  1 or more     
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
Highest level of education 0.3 (0.07-1.6) 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 2.3 (0.6-8.6) 1.4 (0.8-2.5)
  ≤ HS grad     
  ≥ some post-sec (ref)     
Income adequacy 2.6 (0.5-12.7) 1.2 (0.7-2.1) 1.5 (0.5-3.9) 0.7 (0.4-1.6)
  Low income household     
  Income adequate (ref)     
Food security # 4.3 (2.4-7.9) # 5.8 (2.7-12.7)
 Food insecure     
  Food secure (ref)     
Working status last week 3.2 (1.1-9.3) 1.1 (0.7-1.9) 1.5 (0.5-5.0) 0.9 (0.5-1.8)
  Employed (ref)     
  Not employed     
HEALTH & BEHAVIOR
Self-rated health status # 8.7 (5.0-15.4) # 2.9 (1.5-5.7)
  Good-excellent (ref)     
  Poor-Fair     
Presence of chronic conditions     
  No conditions (ref) 1.8 (0.6-5.5) 2.0 (1.0-3.8) 0.6 (0.2-2.2) 2.2 (1.3-3.7)
  1 or more conditions     
Having a regular medical doctor 2.3 (0.6-9.5) 0.5 (0.2-1.5) 0.2 (0.03-0.9) 1.2 (0.6-2.3)
  Yes (ref)     
  No     
Physical activity level 3.2 (1.3-8.1) 1.3 (0.7-2.3) 1.6 (0.5-5.2) 1.3 (0.7-2.4)
  Active (ref)     
  Inactive     
Current smoking status 0.6 (0.2-1.7) 3.0 (1.6-5.9) 0.9 (0.2-3.6) 1.8 (0.8-4.1)
  Yes     
  No (ref)     
ACCULTURATION
Length of stay in Canada 1.0 (0.6-1.8) 1.2 (0.7-2.1)
  0-9 years (ref)     
  10+ years     
Age at time of immigration 1.9 (0.9-3.8) 3.6 (1.9-6.6)
  ≤ 17 years old     
  18+ years old (ref)     
Language of CCHS interview 1.8 (0.5-6.0) 0.2 (0.03-1.7)
  English or French (ref)     
  Not English or French     
  1. #Omitted from model due to low sample size.
  2. Boldface indicates significant difference between Canadian-born and immigrant groups (p < 0.05, 95% CI does not cross 1).