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Table 3 Parenting stress score by anxiety and depression status in Ghana

From: Mental health related determinants of parenting stress among urban mothers of young children – results from a birth-cohort study in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire

  Depressed (n = 23) Non-depressed (n = 249) p Anxious (n = 14) Non-anxious (n = 258) p Entire sample (n = 272)
Parenting stress at 3 month (36-180) 95.3 (14.4) 84.2 (14.0) <0.001 93.7 (12.4) 84.7 (14.3) 0.02 85.1 (14.3)
  Parental distress (12-60) 38.2 (6.2) 32.6 (7.4) <0.001 38.1 (5.2) 32.8 (7.5) 0.01 33.1 (7.5)
  Parental-child dysfunctional interaction (12-60) 26.8 (6.1) 23.4 (5.0) 0.002 24.9 (5.9) 23.6 (5.1) 0.33 23.7 (5.2)
  Difficult child (12-60) 29.9 (4.6) 28.1 (4.9) 0.09 29.1 (4.5) 28.2 (5.0) 0.48 28.3 (4.9)
  Depressed (n = 18) Non-depressed (n = 232) p Anxious (n = 7) Non-anxious (n = 243) p Entire sample (n = 250)
Parenting stress at 12 month (36-180) 94.1 (15.5) 77.1 (16.2) <0.001 94.4 (13.2) 77.8 (16.6) 0.01 78.3 (16.7)
  Parental distress (12-60) 40.4 (8.2) 30.4 (9.0) <0.001 42.3 (5.9) 30.8 (9.1) 0.001 31.1 (9.3)
  Parental-child dysfunctional interaction (12-60) 23.0 (5.9) 19.3 (5.4) 0.01 21.7 (4.3) 19.5 (5.6) 0.29 19.5 (5.5)
  Difficult child (12-60) 30.7 (7.3) 27.4 (6.5) 0.04 30.4 (6.2) 27.5 (6.6) 0.25 27.6 (6.6)
  Depressed (n = 11) Non-depressed (n = 191) p Anxious (n = 7) Non-anxious (n = 195) p Entire sample (n = 202)
Parenting stress at 24 month (36-180) 82.9 (19.7) 71.7 (15.6) 0.02 85.1 (22.3) 71.8 (15.6) 0.03 72.3 (16.0)
  Parental distress (12-60) 35.5 (10.6) 25.5 (9.3) <0.001 34.1 (11.1) 25.8 (9.5) 0.008 26.2 (9.7)
  Parental-child dysfunctional interaction (12-60) 18.9 (5.9) 16.7 (3.9) 0.07 18.0 (7.1) 16.8 (3.9) 0.38 16.8 (4.0)
  Difficult child (12-60) 30.4 (7.9) 29.2 (7.3) 0.56 34.6 (9.1) 29.0 (7.2) 0.03 29.2 (7.4)
  1. Note: Exposures (depression and anxiety) and outcome (PS score) were assessed and compared at the same time. For example, the comparison of 3 month PS is between depressed vs. non-depressed or anxious vs. non-anxious mothers at 3 months. Bold: p<0.05.