Skip to main content

Table 2 Methodological and ethical concerns of the studies

From: Methodological and ethical challenges in studying patients’ perceptions of coercion: a systematic mixed studies review

Author, year country Design Data collection methods Patient recruitment Participants (population and sample size) Ethical approval Patient informed consent asked Patient refusal Non participation
Qualitative         
Wadeson et al. 1976 [35] USA Descriptive study with 1 year follow-up Observations and discussions Voluntary participation Acute, hospitalized schizophrenic patients (N = 62, n = 41 secluded) Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Binder et al. 1983 [36] USA Explorative study Semi-structured interviews with open-ended and fixed-choice questions Recruited by researcher Acute, hospitalized patients (^^, n = 27) Not mentioned Consent asked 3 refused Not mentioned
Outlaw & Lowery 1994 [37] USA Descriptive study Unstructured interview Recruited by researcher after nurse evaluation Acute, hospitalized restrained patients* (N = 84, n = 84) Not mentioned Verbal consent asked by researcher and witnessed by staff member Not mentioned Not mentioned
Johnson 1998 [7] USA Descriptive study Unstructured interview Not explained Acute, hospitalized, restrained patients (^^n = 10) Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Gallop et al. 1999 [8] Canada Descriptive study Semi - structured interview Voluntary participation, posted by treatment centres Former hospitalized women (^^n = 10) Not mentioned Informed written consent asked by researcher after the interview Not mentioned Not mentioned
Meehan et al. 2000 [38] Australia Descriptive study Semi - structured interview Not explained Acute, hospitalized secluded patients (^^n = 12) Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Hoekstra et al. 2004 [39] Netherlands Descriptive study Semi – structured interviews Not explained Former hospitalized outpatients (^^n = 8) Ethics Committee Informed written consent asked by researcher One refused Not mentioned
Holmes et al. 2004 [40] Canada Descriptive study Unstructured interviews Not explained Acute, hospitalized, psychotic, secluded patients (^^n = 6) Not mentioned Informed consent asked by researcher Not mentioned Not mentioned
Wynn 2004 Norway Descriptive study Unstructured interview Recruited by researcher Acute, hospitalized patients (^^n = 12) Ethics Committee Informed written consent by researcher Not mentioned Not mentioned
Chien et al. 2005 [12] China Descriptive study Semi – structured interview with open-ended questions Recruited by researcher Acute, hospitalized and first time restraint patients (^^n = 30) Ethics Committee Informed written consent by researcher 18 refused 50 non participated
Ryan & Happell 2009 [41] Australia Action research Unstructured interviews with open-ended questions Volunteer, recruited in information session by researcher Patients with former experience of seclusion (n =4)* Research and Ethics Committee Informed consent by researcher 18 refused Not mentioned
Mayers et al. 2010 [42] South Africa Descriptive and explorative study Focus group followed by semi - structured interviews with questionnaire Not explained Service users earlier hospitalized (N = 43, n = 43) Ethics Committee Informed written consent by researcher Not mentioned Not mentioned
Sibitz et al. 2011 [43] Austria Descriptive study Semi – structured interviews with open-ended questions Voluntary participation, provided by written information Service users earlier hospitalized in stable psychiatric condition (^^n = 15) Ethics Committee Informed written consent by researcher Not mentioned Not mentioned
Kontio et al. 2012 [44] Finland Descriptive study Focus group interviews with open-ended question Recruited by staff Acute, hospitalized patients (N = 120, n = 30) Ethics Committee Informed written consent by staff 16 refused 27 non participated
Quantitative         
Soliday 1985 [45] USA Cross-sectional survey, descriptive study Self-reported questionnaire Not explained Acute, hospitalized patients* (N = 146, n =86) Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Hamill et al. 1989 [46] USA Explorative study Structured interview with questionnaire Recruited by staff Acutely psychotic, schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients (N = 26, n = 17) Not mentioned Consent asked by staff 9 refused Not mentioned
Mann et al. 1993 [47] USA Cross-sectional survey, descriptive study Self-reported questionnaire Not explained Acute, hospitalized patients with various diagnosis on voluntary unit (^^n =50) Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Kennedy et al. 1994 [48] USA Cross-sectional survey, descriptive study Structured interview with questionnaire Recruited by researcher after nurse evaluation Acute, hospitalized schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients (^^n = 25) Ethics committee Informed written consent asked by researcher 2 patients Not mentioned
Ray et al. 1996 [49] USA Cross-sectional mail survey, descriptive study Self-reported structured questionnaire by mail Voluntary participation Former hospitalized patients (^^n = 1040) Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Meehan et al. 2004 [10] Australia Cross-sectional survey, explorative study Self-reported standardized questionnaire Recruited by research assistance Acute hospitalized patients* (^^n = 29) Ethics Committee Informed written consent asked by assistance Not mentioned Not mentioned
Sorgaard [50] 2004 Norway Intervention study 5 week baseline and 12 week intervention phase Self –reported standardized questionnaires Recruited by staff members before discharge Acute, hospitalized patients (^^n = 190) Not mentioned Informed by staff members Not mentioned Not mentioned
Frueh et al. 2005 [13] USA Cross-sectional survey, descriptive study Self – reported questionnaires Recruited by researcher Randomly selected patients in day hospital programme (N = 156, n = 142) Review boards approvals Informed written consent and 25 $paid by researchers 14 refused Not mentioned
Stolker et al 2006 [51] Netherlands Explorative study Thematic interview and self-reported structured questionnaire Not explained Acute, hospitalized patients (N = 72, n = 54) Ethics Committee Informed written consent was obtained by researcher Not mentioned 6 non participated
Steinert et al. 2007 [52] Germany Cross-sectional survey, descriptive study Self – reported questionnaire Not explained Acute, hospitalized schizophrenia patients (N = 173, n = 117) Not mentioned Informed consent asked by researcher Not mentioned Not mentioned
El-Badri et al. 2008 [53] New Zealand Cross-sectional survey, descriptive, comparative study Self-reported questionnaire Not explained Randomly selected outpatients (n = 111)* Not mentioned Not explained Not mentioned Not mentioned
Veltkamp et al. 2008 [54] Netherlands Exploratory study Self-reported questionnaire Recruited by researcher Acute, hospitalized patients (N = 141, n = 104) Ethics Committee Informed written consent 24 refused 38 non participated
Whittington et al. 2009 [55] UK Cross-sectional survey, exploratory study Self-reported questionnaire Recruited by staff Randomly selected acute hospitalized patients (N = 1361)* Ethics Committee Informed written consent obtained by staff Not mentioned Not mentioned
Keski-Valkama et al. 2010 [56] Finland Comparative descriptive follow-up study Structured interview with questionnaire Recruited and condition evaluated by staff Hospitalized forensic and acute, hospitalized patients (N = 154, n = 106) in baseline and (n = 83) in follow-up Ethics Committee Informed written consent by staff 48 refused 16 non participated
Kjellin & Wallsten 2010 [57] Sweden Comparative descriptive follow-up study Structured interviews with questionnaire Not explained Acute, hospitalized involuntary and randomly selected patients (N = 375, n =282) in baseline and in follow-up (n = 233) Ethics Committee Not mentioned 93 refused Not mentioned
Bergk et al. [11] Germany Randomized controlled trial Semi-structured interview with questionnaire Randomly and non randomly selected and recruited by researchers Acute, hospitalized patients (N = 233, n = 108) Ethical Review board Informed written consent by researcher 32 refused Not mentioned
Currier et al. [58] USA Comparative explorative follow-up study Self-reported structured questionnaire Not explained Acute, emergency patients (N = 151, n = 67 restrained and n = 84 unrestrained) Human Subject Review Board Agreement mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned
Georgieva et al. 2012 [59] Netherlands Explorative study Self-reported questionnaire Not explained Acute hospitalized, first time admitted patients (N = 161, n = 161) Institution of Board Directors Not mentioned 75 refused Not mentioned
  1. *Both patients and staff were participants.
  2. ^^Number of total eligible participants was missing.
  3. Mentioned non participation due to e.g. quick discharge, exclusion criteria, patients’ condition.