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Table 1 Intervention summary and results

From: Efficacy of depression treatments for immigrant patients: results from a systematic review

Study Intervention Language Control Design N Data collection Primary outcome measure* Effect on depressive symptoms Sig.
Yeung et al. (2010) [64] Culturally-sensitive, collaborative treatment (8 sessions/24 weeks) English/Chinese UCa Descriptive uncontrolled design 100 6 months, follow up: 1.5, 3.5 and 6 months HAM-D CGI-S CGI-I Decrease in depressive symptoms in Control and Intervention. No significant difference between groups No
Choi et al. (2012) [53] Culturally-adapted, internet CBT (8 weeks) English/Chinese WLb RCT 63 Pre, post and 3 month (intervention only) CBDI CB-PHQ9 Large effect size on BDI (d =1.41; d = .93 within and between groups) and medium to large effect size on CB-PHQ-9 (d = .90; d = .50 within and between groups) Yes
Cho et al. (2012) [52] Logo-autobiography (6 sessions/6 weeks) Korean UC with and without medicine Non-randomised experimental research study 40 Pre, post and 4 week follow up (intervention only) CES-D (Korean) Depression scores significantly decreased in I relative to C at post-test (p = .013) and 4 weeks (p = .001). Effect size .50. No significant difference between Imed and Cmed Partly
Tang et al. (2005) [61] CBT (16 sessions/5 months) Cantonese None Case study 1 Not described GDS Depression scores on GDS decreased by 8 points by conclusion of study NA
Yeung et al. (2012) [63] Tai Chi (2×1 hr/12 weeks) Chinese WL Pilot RCT 39 Baseline, 6 12 weeks HAM-D CGI-S CGI-I Non-significant positive trend towards remission of depression No
Dwight-Johnson et al. (2011) [54] Culturally-tailored, telephone based CBT intervention (8 sessions) Spanish Enhanced UC Randomised pilot study 101 Baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months SCL PHQ-9 Non-significant positive trend towards remission of depression in intervention group No
Piedra et al. (2012) [58] Group CBT “Vida alegra” (10 sessions/10 weeks) Spanish None Pre/post/follow-up study 19 Baseline, Post test, 3 months CES-D Significant reduction in CES-D, effect size = .67 Yes
Interian et al. (2008) [56] Culturally-adapted, CBT (12 sessions) Spanish None Pre/post/follow-up study 15 Baseline, Post test, 6 months BDI-S PHQ-15 Significant reduction in BDI-S scores at post (p = .0005) and 6 months (p = .0005). PHQ-15 significant at post assessment (p = .004), and at 6 months (p = .01) Yes
Kanter et al. (2010) [57] Culturally-adapted, Behavioral Activation (12 sessions) Spanish/English UC Pre/post study design 10 Pre and post (following 12 sessions or 20 weeks which ever came first) BDI-II HRSD Significant improvements observed on BDI-II, large effect size d = 1.67, HRSD, effect size d = 1.57 Yes
Schmaling et al. (2008) [60] Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care (8 sessions) Spanish/English Participants refusing treatment, Non-completers Pre/post repeated measures study 117 baseline and ~ 4 months HSCL-20 Significant improvement following 4+ sessions compared to 3 or less sessions, p < .05. ≥4 sessions decrease of m = .86 point. ≤ 3 sessions decrease of m = .4 points Yes
Chu et al. (2012) [50] Culturally-adapted, Problem Solving Therapy (12 sessions) English None Pilot case study 1 Pre and post intervention PHQ-9 Mood PHQ-9 score decreased from 12 to 3 Mood improved NA
Beeber et al. (2012) [51] Culturally-sensitive, home-based IPT (11 in-home sessions with nurse/interpreter, 5 short sessions with interpreter only) Spanish Enhanced UC RCT 80 Baseline (T1), 14 (T2), 22 (T3) (termination) weeks and 4 weeks post termination (T4) CES-D Significant improvement in CES-D scores : CES-D within group changes: T1 vs T2, p = .021 T1 vs T3, p = .005 T1vs T4, p = .021 Yes
Gelman et al. (2005) [55] Culturally-adapted, group CBT (12× weekly sessions) Spanish None Pilot pre-post repeated measures study 5 pre and post intervention BDI-S BDI scores significantly reduced (p = .01) Yes
Uebelacker et al. (2011) [62] Telephone depression care management (D-HELP) (8 calls/12 weeks) Spanish UC Pilot RCT 38 pre, 6 and 12 weeks post intervention QUIDS CES-D Non-significant positive trend towards remission of depression No
Renner et al. (2011) [59] CBT and Self Help group (SH) intervention (15 session/4 months) CBT: German with interpreter support SH: Turkish WL RCT 38 Pre, termination, 4 weeks, 6 month follow-up CES-D, BSI PHQ-Turkish SHG ineffective, CBT decreased depressive symptoms on BSI only and results deteriorated over time No
  1. *Abbreviations: Ham-D/HRSD Hamilton Rating Scale for depression; CGI-S Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale; CGI-I Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale; CBDI Beck Depression Inventory-I Chinese; BDI-S Beck Depression Inventory-Spanish; BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory-II; CB-PHQ9 Chinese Bilingual version of the Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire; CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; GDS Geriatric Depression Scale; SCL/HSCL-20 Hopkins Symptom Checklist; QUIDS Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms; BSI Brief Symptom Inventory.
  2. aUC: Usual Care.
  3. bWL: Waitlist.