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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of studies between internet addiction and psychiatric co-morbidity

From: The association between internet addiction and psychiatric co-morbidity: a meta-analysis

Study (date) Study location Study design Population Case definition Description of controls Number of subjects (n) (IA/controls) Proportion of gender in all subjects (% males) Proportion of gender in IA patients (% males) Mean age of all subjects (in years) Method of assessment for psychiatric co-morbidity Psychiatric comorbidity studied Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity (IA/ controls)
Alavi et al. (2011) [17] Iran Cross- sectional College student YDQ and IAT Community sample 36/214 38.0 61.1 22.5 SCL-90-R Depression 44.4/17.8
Anxiety 50.0/19.8
Ko et al.
(2009) [18]
Taiwan Observational cohort study 7th grade students from 10 junior high schools CIAS Community sample 276/1572 56.1 63.8 12.4 CES-D Depression 14.3/9.3
ADHDA ADHD 19.5/10.1
BV-FNE Anxiety 20.3/15.7
Yen et al. (2009) [19] Taiwan Case -control College students CIAS Community sample 246/1746 29.2 45.1 20.5 CES-D Depression 26.4/10.1
AUDIT Alcohol 13.0/5.7
Yen et al.
(2009) [20]
Taiwan Case control Students from 8 colleges CIAS Community sample 338/2281 33.5 51.8 20.5 ASRS ADHD 20.7/8.3
Bakken et al. (2009) [21] Norway Cross- sectional National postal survey YDQ score of ≥ 3 Community sample and YDQ score of 2 and below 212/3181 47.1 NA 45.8 Self-reported feelings of depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse Depression 36.0/15.4
Anxiety 16.5/5.6
Alcohol 6.1/1.2
Ko et al. (2008) [22] Taiwan Observational cohort study Student from 2 classes per grade from a random selection of 3 senior high schools and 7 vocational high school CIAS Community sample 366/1632 56.8 71.3 16.3 CRAFFT substance abuse screening test Alcohol 25.1/11.0
Ko et al. (2008) [23] Taiwan Case -control Respondents to an advertisement regarding internet usage DC-IA-C Community sample 87/129 61.1 74.7 21.5 Chinese Version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric interview Depression 18.3/6.2
ADHD 32.2/8.5
Anxiety 14.9/6.2
Yoo et al. (2004) [24] Korea Case- control Elementary school students IAT Community sample 80/455 49.3 68.8 11.1 K-ARS ADHD 22.5/8.1
  1. YDQ, Young diagnostic questionnaire; IAT , Young Internet Addiction test; CIAS Chen Internet Addiction Scale; DC-IA-C, Diagnostic Criteria of Internet Addiction for College; SCL-90-R , Symptom Checklist-90-Revision; CES-D, Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; ADHDS, Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Self-rated Scale; BV-FNE, Brief Version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale; AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; ASRS, Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale; K-ARS, Korean version of DuPaul’s ADHD rating scale.