Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics according to tertile categories of dietary pattern scores

From: Dietary patterns are associated with obesity in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

  Healthy dietary pattern Processed food pattern Alcohol and accompanying dietary pattern
  Total Low tertile Middle tertile High tertile Trend pa Low tertile Middle tertile High tertile Trend pa Low tertile Middle tertile High tertile Trend pa
Number of subjects 338 112 113 113   113 112 113   112 113 113  
Age 44.0 ± 13.2 42.9 ± 12.1 43.7 ± 14.0 45.3 ± 13.4 0.181 45.2 ± 13.5 43.5 ± 12.2 43.2 ± 13.9 0.253 43.3 ± 13.5 45.4 ± 13.7 43.2 ± 12.2 0.980
BMI 25.5 ± 5.2 26.7 ± 5.7 25.6 ± 5.3 24.2 ± 4.2 <0.001 26.3 ± 5.0 25.3 ± 5.3 24.8 ± 5.3 <0.05 25.2 ± 5.0 25.1 ± 4.7 26.0 ± 5.8 0.294
Male (%) 170 (50.3) 71 (63.4) 60 (53.1) 39 (34.5) <0.001 63 (55.8) 59 (52.7) 48 (42.5) <0.05 47 (42.0) 48 (42.5) 75 (66.4) <0.001
Dietary intake              
Energy (kcal) 1781 ± 829 1679 ± 872 1877 ± 822 1788 ± 785 0.315 1656 ± 591 1670 ± 626 2014 ± 1116 <0.01 1810 ± 657 1710 ± 788 1823 = 1005 0.904
Protein (g/l000 kcal) 36.6 ± 8.1 31.7 ± 6.9 36.8 ± 7.7 41.4 ± 6.4 <0.001 33.7 ± 7.3 36.6 ± 7.4 39.6 ± 8.3 <0.001 36.5 ± 7.2 37.3 ± 7.7 36.1 ± 9.1 0.721
Carbohydrate (g/l000kcal) 141 ± 22 148 ± 24 139 ± 21 136 ± 19 <0001 154 ± 18 138 ± 21 131 ± 21 <0001 140 ± 19 146 ± 20 138 ± 26 0.408
Fat (g/1000 kcal) 27.9 ± 7.3 25.6 ± 8.0 28.6 ± 6.8 29.4 ± 6.6 <0.001 23.5 ± 6.0 28.2 ± 6.8 31.9 ± 6.6 <0.001 30.9 ± 6.8 27.2 ± 6.5 25.6 ± 7.6 <0.001
Dietary fibre (g/l000 kcal) 6.02 ± 2.59 4.11 ± 1.23 5.49 ± 1.00 8.44 ± 2.80 <0.001 5.74 ± 3.08 5.92 ± 2.37 6.38 ± 2.21 0.066 5.96 ± 2.84 6.11 ± 2.47 5.98 = 2.47 0.948
Alcohol (g/l000kcal) 3.16 ± 8.52 4.22 ± 10.72 3.14 ± 8.54 2.12 ± 5.42 0.065 2.49 ± 6.06 4.31 ± 11.38 2.68 ± 7.19 0.871 0.51 ± 1.49 0.80 ± 2.18 8.13 ± 13.19 <0.001
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (g/l000 1.40 ± 0.50 1.08 ± 0.41 1.43 ± 0.41 1.68 ± 0.49 <0.001 1.22 ± 0.42 1.43 ± 0.50 1.54 ± 0.52 <0001 1.48 ± 0.52 1.37 ± 0.45 1.35 ± 0.52 <0.05
n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (g/l000 5.42 ± 1.59 4.83 ± 1.82 5.56 ± 1.32 5.85 ± 1.44 <0.001 4.80 ± 1.31 5.54 ± 1.74 5.91 ± 1.50 <0.001 5.60 ± 1.57 5.34 ± 1.32 5.32 ± 1.84 0.191
Folate (μg/l000kcaI) 158 ± 81 99 ± 34 147 ± 32 228 ± 96 <0.001 150 ± 102 153 ± 69 172 ± 67 <0.05 157 ± 94 157 ± 76 161 ± 74 0.753
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) (mg/1000 kcal) 0.67 ± 0.22 0.55 ± 0.18 0.68 ± 0.19 0.79 ± 0.21 <0.001 0.60 ± 0.23 0.66 ± 021 0.75 ± 0.18 <0.001 0.69 ± 0.22 0.68 ± 0.22 0.65 ± 0.21 0.145
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) (mg/1000 kcal) 0.60 ± 0.19 0.45 ± 0.14 0.59 ± 0.12 0.76 ± 0.16 <0.001 0.54 ± 0.19 0.60 ± 0.17 0.67 ± 0.18 <0.001 0.60 ± 0.18 0.60 ± 0.19 0.61 ± 0.20 0.879
Cobalamin (Vitamin Bl2) (μg/l000 kcal) 4.85 ± 2.78 3.47 ± 2.42 5.03 ± 2.63 6.03 ± 2.67 <0.001 3.78 ± 1.86 4.95 ± 2.63 5.81 ± 3.28 <0.001 4.89 ± 2.56 4.66 ± 2.74 4.99 ± 3.02 0.797
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) (mg/l000 kcal) 49.9 ± 32.7 29.2 ± 20.2 44.6 ± 19.2 75.8 ± 36.2 <0.001 42.3 ± 35.1 46.6 ± 27.7 60.9 ± 32.2 <0.001 51.4 ± 35.4 49.0 ± 30.6 49.4 ± 32.1 0.649
  1. Abbreviation: BMI body mass index.
  2. aBased on the Cochram-Armitage trend test for categorical variables and linear regression anlysis for continuous variables; ordinal numbers 0–2 were assigned to the tertile categories of each dietary pattern.