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Table 1 Studies of CMD in Ethiopia over the past 40 years

From: Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia

Reference Location Setting SS CMD measure CMD definition Prevalence
First Generation studies
[76] Urban Urban health centre 500 Psychiatrist CPM 19.0%
Urban Community 100 Psychiatrist CPM 8.6%
[77] Rural Community 100 Psychiatrist CPM 9.0%
[78] Urban General hospital clinic 795 Psychiatrist CPM 6.8%
Urban Police Hospital clinic 486 Psychiatrist CPM 16.2%
[79] Urban District hospital clinic 465 Psychiatrist CPM 18.3%
Second Generation Studies
[80] Urban Community 40 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥5 12.0%
[38] Urban Community (Mothers only) 611 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥11 9.8%
[39] Rural Community 2000 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥11 11.2%
[33] Rural Community 10468 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥11 17.4%
[37] Urban Community 10203 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥6 11.7%
[81] Mixed Community (Mothers only) 1400 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥8 22.0%
[34, 36] Mixed Community (Mothers only) 1652 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥8 32.0%
[35]* Rural Community 902 HSCL   42.0% in women, 37.0% in men
[82] Rural Community (antenatal) 1065 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥5 12.0%
[1] Rural Community (postnatal) 954 SRQ-20 Cut-off ≥5 4.6%
Third Generation Studies
[41] Rural Community 501 CIDI 1-month Dissociative disorders 4.5%
Somatoform disorders 4.8%
Anxiety disorders 2.9%
Depressive disorder/dysthymia 4.9%
[46, 47] Urban Community 1420 CIDI 1-month Dissociative, somatoform or anxiety disorder 8.1%
1420 CIDI 1-month Depressive disorder/dysthymia 3.6%
[42, 43] Rural Community (all women) 3016 CIDI 12-month Depressive disorder 4.4%
Anxiety disorder 5.7%
Stress-related/somatoform 5.7%
Community (married women) 1994 CIDI (12-month) Depressive disorder 4.8%
[44] Rural Community 68378 CIDI (lifetime) Minor depressive disorder 2.2%
[45] Rural Island Community 1714 CIDI (lifetime) Minor depressive disorder 20.5
  1. Abbreviations: CIDI Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CMD Common Mental Disorder, CPM Conspicuous Psychiatric Morbidity, HSCL Hopkins Symptom Checklist, SRQ Self Reporting Questionnaire.