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Table 4 Univariate analysis of factors associated with common mental disorder

From: Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia

   Well or only mild disorder n% Moderate or severe disorder n% Odds ratio 95% CI p value
   N% N%    
Sex          
  Male 631 49.7 105 51.0 1.0    
  Female 638 50.3 101 49.0 0.96 0.76 1.20 0.689
Residence          
  Urban 115 9.1 22 10.7 1.0    
  Rural 1144 90.9 184 89.3 1.19 0.74 1.93 0.481
Marital status Single 222 17.6 31 15.3 1.0    
  Married 952 75.5 141 69.5 1.04 0.69 1.57 0.855
  Formerly married 85 6.8 31 15.3 2.46 1.44 4.26 0.001
Ethnicity          
  Gurage 1199 95.0 190 92.2 1.0    
  Other 63 5.0 16 7.8 0.62 0.35 1.10 0.105
Religious affiliation          
  Orthodox 1125 92.1 184 92.9 1.0    
  Other 97 7.9 14 7.1 0.85 0.48 1.52 0.578
Occupation          
  House wife 346 28.5 54 26.9 1.0    
  Farmer 646 53.2 114 56.7 0.91 0.52 1.60 0.749
  Private 112 9.2 14 7.0 1.03 0.61 1.74 0.910
  Other 111 9.1 19 9.5 0.73 0.35 1.53 0.404
Age          
  Median (IQR) 35.0 (27.8, 45.0) 38.0 (29.1, 50.0) 1.01 1.03 0.002
Relative wealth          
  Better off 149 12.0 17 8.6 1.0    
  Average 689 55.6 93 47.0 1.19 0.69 2.05 0.539
  Poor 401 32.4 88 44.4 1.97 1.14 3.42 0.016
Education          
  Formal education 391 33.7 58 30.2 1.0    
  Literate but no formal education 270 23.3 53 27.6 1.32 0.88 1.98 0.174
  Non-literate 500 43.1 81 42.2 1.09 0.76 1.57 0.633
Mental illness in family          
  None 978 80.7 138 70.8 1.0    
  Yes 234 19.3 57 29.2 1.73 1.23 2.43 0.002
Life events          
  None 746 60.8 48 23.6 1.0    
  ≤2 events 332 27.1 74 36.5 3.65 2.53 5.27 <0.001
  >2 events 148 12.1 81 39.9 8.25 5.57 12.22 <0.001
Social support          
  Strong 152 12.6 15 7.9 1.0    
  Average 555 46.2 88 46.3 1.65 0.93 2.94 0.088
  Poor 495 41.2 87 45.8 1.79 1.00 3.18 0.048
Can count on others          
  At least on 1 person to count on 1164 86.9 175 86.2 1.0    
  None 90 7.2 28 13.8 2.07 1.32 3.26 0.002
Concern from others          
  At least some concern 616 50.6 80 41.7 1.0    
  Little or uncertain 601 49.4 112 58.3 1.44 1.05 1.95 0.022
Ease of help          
  Easy 556 44.1 77 37.7 1.0    
  Difficult 704 55.9 127 62.3 1.30 0.96 1.77 0.088
Harmful use of alcohol          
  None 989 80.2 137 67.8 1.0    
  Yes 244 19.8 65 32.2 1.92 1.39 2.67 <0.001