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Table 4 Hierarchical multiple regression analyses predicting PTSD symptoms from perinatal variables (Model 1), birth-related (Model 2), social support (Model 3) and cognitive variables (Model 4)

From: Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth

Predictor Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
R 2= .11, Δ R 2= .11*** R 2= .43, Δ R 2= .33*** R 2= .44, Δ R 2= .01 R 2= .68, Δ R 2= .23***
  B SE B β B SEB β B SE B β B SE B β
Constant 2.95***    1.54*    2.51**    -.10   
Block1: prenatal variables             
Age -.04 .02 -.13* -.04 .02 -.11* -.04 .02 -.11* -.01 .01 -.04
Previous sexual trauma .36 .28 .09 .17 .23 .04 .16 .23 .04 .15 .18 .04
Other previous trauma .36 .22 .11 .13 .18 .04 .10 .18 .03 -.13 .14 -.04
Complications during pregnancy .34 .22 .11 .09 .18 .03 .10 .18 .04 .09 .14 .03
Wellbeing during pregnancy -.21 .10 -.15* -.17 .09 -.12 -.17 .09 -.12 -.08 .07 -.05
Block 2: birth-related variables             
Perceived life threata     .11 .23 .03 .14 .23 .04 .26 .18 .07
Peritraumatic Emotions (PEQ)     .04 .01 .35*** .04 .01 .32*** -.01 .01 -.08
Normal Vaginal Birth     -.13 .24 -.04 -.14 .24 -.04 -.22 .19 -.07
Secondary Section or Emergency Section     -.03 .31 -.01 -.01 .30 .00 .04 .24 .01
Complications During Childbed     -.01 .18 .00 .02 .18 .01 .11 .14 .04
Wellbeing During Childbed     -.38 .09 -.29*** -.37 -.09 -.28*** -.21 .07 -.16**
Block 3: social support             
Quality of social support (UCLA)        -.02 .02 -.06 -.01 .01 -.01
Quantity of social support (UCLA)        -.01 .01 -.07 -.01 .01 -.03
Block 4: cognitive variables             
Dissociation (PDEQ)           .02 .01 .08
PTCI           .01 <.01 .17*
RIQ: Rumination           .07 .02 .22**
RIQ: Thought Supression           .09 .03 .20**
PTQ           .02 .01 .23***
  1. Note. N = 224. Total R 2 = .68. PDS = Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale – square transformed, PEQ = Peritraumatic Emotions Questionnaire; UCLA = University of California, Los Angeles Social Support Inventory; PDEQ = Peritraumatic Dissociative Experience Questionnaire; PTCI = Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory; RIQ = Responses to Intrusions Questionnaire; PTQ = Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire.
  2. aConcern for one’s life or the baby’s life.
  3. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001.