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Table 1 Associated factors regarding nocturnal awakening by univariate logistical regression models (N = 20 505)

From: Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness

Variables (n, %) Prevalence of nocturnal awakening n (%) Univariate regression models OR (95% CI) Pvalue
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years)    <.001
  5-6 (2534, 12.4%) 196 (7.7) 1.00  
  7- (3781, 18.6%) 343 (9.1) 1.19 (0.99-1.43) .063
  8- (3817, 18.7%) 351 (9.2) 1.18 (0.98-1.42) .074
  9- (3781, 18.2%) 377 (10.0) 1.32 (1.10-1.58) .002
  10- (3703, 17.1%) 370 (10.0) 1.32 (1.10-1.58) 003
  11- (2762, 13.6%) 298 (10.9) 1.44 (1.19-1.74) <.001
 Gender (%)    
  Boys (10095, 49.5%) 1005 (10.0) 1.13 (1.03-1.24) .013
  Girls (10306, 50.5%) 921 (8.9) 1.00  
 Ethnicity    
  Han ethnic group (19346, 94.9%) 1809 (9.4) 1.00  
  Minority ethnic group (1038, 5.1%) 114 (11.0) 1.20 (0.98-1.46) .080
Socioeconomic characteristics
 Family income    <.001
  <800 (3903, 19.3%) 567 (14.5) 2.57 (2.22-2.98) <.001
  800-2500 (11460, 56.6%) 1033 (9.0) 1.50 (1.31-1.71) <.001
  ≥2500 (4902, 24.2%) 304 (6.2) 1.00  
 Family structure    <.001
  Single parent family (1081, 5.3%) 150 (13.9) 1.53 (1.27-1.83) <.001
  Large family (6478, 31.7%) 551 (8.5) 0.88 (0.79-0.98) .019
  Nuclear family (12852, 63.0%) 1226 (9.5) 1.00  
 Mather’s education level    <.001
  Low (5687, 28.2%) 853 (15.0) 2.91 (2.58-3.28) <.001
  Medium (6716, 33.3%) 589 (8.8) 1.58 (1.39-1.80) <.001
  High (7741, 38.4%) 443 (5.7) 1.00  
 Father’s education level    <.001
  Low (4884, 24.0%) 764 (15.6) 2.86 (2.54-3.22) <.001
  Medium (6969, 34.2%) 639 (9.2) 1.56 (1.38-1.76) <.001
  High (8538, 41.9%) 520 (6.1) 1.00  
Biological chronic health problems
 Overweight/obesity    
  Yes (4119, 20.6%) 660 (16.2) 1.87 (1.42-2.48) <.001
  No (15878, 79.4%) 1471 (9.3) 1.00  
 Chronic pain during night    
  Yes (1362, 6.7%) 299 (22.0) 3.03 (2.64-3.47) <.001
  No (18995, 93.3%) 1616 (8.5) 1.00  
 History of ADHD diagnosis    
  Yes (921, 4.5%) 151 (16.4) 1.95 (1.63-2.34) <.001
  No (19568, 95.5%) 1787 (9.1) 1.00  
 Chronic respiratory condition    
  Yes (7000, 34.2%) 754 (10.8) 1.26 (1.14-1.39) <.001
  No (13457, 65.8%) 1178 (8.8) 1.00  
 Food/drug allergy    
  Yes (1160, 5.7%) 122 (10.5) 1.13 (0.93-1.38) .046
  No (19331, 94.3%) 1816 (9.4) 1.00  
Psychosocial condition
 Poor mental and emotional condition    
  Yes (6856, 33.4%) 844 (12.3) 1.61 (1.46-1.77) <.001
  No (13649, 66.6%) 1097 (8.0) 1.00  
 Poor peer acceptance/social functioning    
  Yes (5685, 27.7%) 663 (11.7) 1.40 (1.27-1.55) <.001
  No (14820, 72.3%) 1278 (8.6) 1.00  
 Poor parenthood    
  Yes (6495, 31.7%) 762 (11.7) 1.45 (1.31-1.59) <.001
  No (14010, 68.35%) 1179 (8.4) 1.00  
Sleep environments
 Sleep arrangements    .215
  Bed-sharing (4817, 23.5%) 477 (9.9) 1.09 (0.97-1.22) .145
  Room-sharing (3035, 14.8%) 302 (10.0) 1.09 (0.96-1.25) .192
  Sleeping alone (12653, 61.7%) 1162 (9.2) 1.00  
 Bedroom intrusive noise    
  Yes (861, 4.2%) 112 (13.0) 1.46 (1.19-1.79) <.001
  No (19577, 95.8%) 1821 (9.3) 1.00  
 Bedroom intrusive light    
  Yes (2173, 10.6%) 279 (13.0) 1.51 (1.32-1.72) <.001
  No (17880, 89.4%) 1660 (9.1) 1.00  
Bedtime hygiene
 Having drinks with caffeine after 6:00 pm    
  Usually/often (7935, 38.8%) 892 (11.2) 1.39 (1.27-1.53) <.001
  Occasionally/never (12512, 61.2%) 1043 (8.3) 1.00  
 Dong exciting activities before bedtime    
  Usually/often (6092, 29.8%) 758 (12.4) 1.59 (1.44-1.75) <.001
  Occasionally/never (14331, 70.2%) 1179 (8.2) 1.00  
 Bedtime resistance    
  Yes (14421, 71.7%) 1528 (10.6) 1.65 (1.47-1.85) <.001
  No (5690, 28.3%) 382 (6.7) 1.00  
 Irregular bedtime    
  Yes (5952, 29.1%) 653 (11.0) 1.27 (1.15-1.40) <.001
  No (14518, 70.8%) 1285 (8.9) 1.00  
Family history of insomnia
 Grandparents’ history of insomnia    
  Yes (1778, 8.7%) 179 (10.1) 1.08 (0.92-1.27) .365
  No (18727, 91.3%) 1762 (9.4) 1.00  
 Parents’ history of insomnia    
  Yes (3369, 16.4%) 455 (13.5) 1.64 (1.47-1.84) <.001
  No (17136, 83.6%) 1486 (8.7) 1.00  
  1. Family income was expressed in RMB (yuan)/person/month.
  2. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval.