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Table 4 Selected logistic regressions for 12-month suicidal ideation by remoteness, comparing 2007-NSMHWB and ARMHS samples

From: Determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: parallel cross-sectional analyses examining geographical location

Characteristic (predictor or exposure variable) Category 2007-NSMHWB# ARMHS#
Major cities (n = 5388) n (%) Inner Regional (n = 1943) n (%) Other (n = 1132) n (%) AOR p-value Inner Regional
(n = 251)
n (%)
Other (n = 383) n (%) AOR p-value
Demographic factors Age in years           
18-44 93 (3.4) 20 (2.5) 15 (3.1) . . 9 (15) 5 (6.4) . .
45-64 41 (2.7) 19 (2.9) 10 (2.8) 0.87 0.381 11 (8.1) 8 (3.9) 0.57 0.143
65-85 11 (1.0) 9 (1.8) 4 (1.4) 0.58 0.023 2 (3.6) 3 (3.0) 0.40 0.105
Gender Male 53 (2.2) 24 (2.7) 14 (2.7) . . 10 (9.7) 6 (4.1) . .
Female 92 (3.1) 24 (2.3) 15 (2.4) 0.93 0.606 12 (8.1) 10 (4.2) 0.83 0.596
Marital status Not married 116 (4.0) 34 (3.6) 25 (4.1) . . 12 (13) 9 (6.6) . .
Currently married 29 (1.2) 14 (1.4) 4 (0.8) 0.43 <0.001 10 (6.3) 7 (2.9) 0.65 0.218
Education No university degree 92 (2.8) 38 (2.7) 18 (2.1) . . 17 (9.2) 12 (3.8) . .
University degree 53 (2.5) 10 (1.9) 11 (4.2) 1.0 0.969 5 (7.6) 4 (6.2) 1.1 0.805
Employment status Employed 78 (2.3) 21 (1.8) 15 (2.2) . . 9 (7.2) 9 (4.3) . .
Not in Workforce 7 (5.9) 1 (3.0) 3 (8.3) 1.5 0.011 10 (8.6) 7 (4.3) 1.6 0.249
Unemployed 60 (3.3) 26 (3.4) 11 (2.6) 1.8 0.095 3 (33)   2.0 0.338
Financial adversity Low 88 (1.9) 26 (1.6) 12 (1.3) . . 7 (4.9) 7 (3.2)   .
Moderate 38 (6.2) 14 (6.3) 12 (7.7) 1.7 0.001 7 (15) 4 (5.7) 1.7 0.217
High 19 (16) 8 (15) 5 (19) 2.9 <0.001 3 (17) 3 (11) 1.3 0.601
Physical health           
Smoking No 85 (2.0) 31 (2.1) 18 (2.1) . . 15 (8.5) 8 (3.1)   .
Yes 60 (5.4) 17 (3.8) 11 (3.9) 1.4 0.033 3 (8.1) 7 (12) 1.1 0.794
Number of chronic diseases 0 101 (2.7) 26 (2.2) 22 (3.1) . . 13 (9.2) 10 (4.6) . .
1 27 (2.2) 14 (2.6) 3 (1.0) 0.85 0.391 6 (6.9) 5 (4.1) 1.0 0.988
> = 2 17 (3.5) 8 (3.4) 4 (3.1) 1.4 0.161 3 (13) 1 (2.2) 1.2 0.787
Mental health           
Psychological distress (K10) Low 20 (0.5) 3 (0.2) 5 (0.6) . . 1 (1.4)   . .
Moderate 59 (4.8) 18 (4.1) 13 (5.2) 9.7 <0.001 7 (5.4) 8 (4.2) 8.9 0.036
High 66 (20) 26 (22) 10 (18) 50 <0.001 14 (27) 8 (11) 36 <0.001
Any affective disorder No lifetime diagnosis 70 (1.5) 22 (1.3) 11 (1.2) . . 7 (3.8) 6 (2.0)   .
Lifetime diagnosis with 12-month symptoms 63 (20) 21 (19) 14 (21) 3.9 <0.001 13 (33) 6 (16) 5.5 <0.001
Lifetime diagnosis with no 12-month symptoms 12 (2.5) 5 (2.9) 4 (3.7) 0.97 0.895 2 (7.7) 4 (10) 2.7 0.057
Any anxiety disorder No lifetime diagnosis 58 (1.5) 20 (1.4) 11 (1.3) . . 5 (3.6) 3 (1.3) . .
Lifetime diagnosis with 12-month symptoms 75 (10) 23 (9.0) 18 (11) 2.0 <0.001 16 (21) 8 (9.1) 4.3 0.001
Lifetime diagnosis with no 12 month symptoms 12 (1.8) 5 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 0.62 0.083 1 (2.7) 5 (7.9) 2.4 0.121
Any substance use disorder No lifetime diagnosis 88 (2.1) 24 (1.7) 15 (1.9) . . 13 (6.7) 7 (2.5) . .
Lifetime diagnosis with 12 month symptoms 29 (11) 9 (11) 7 (13) 2.9 <0.001 4 (50) 5 (45) 11 <0.001
  Lifetime diagnosis with no 12 month symptoms 28 (2.9) 15 (3.7) 7 (2.5) 1.1 0.623 5 (10) 4 (4.6) 1.1 0.898
Any lifetime psychiatric disorder No 24 (0.9) 4 (0.5) 3 (0.6) . .   1 (0.7) . .
Yes 121 (4.4) 44 (4.1) 26 (4.2) 2.0 0.001 22 (13) 15 (6.1) 11 0.020
Any 12 month psychiatric disorder No 38 (0.9) 11 (0.7) 7 (0.8) . . 4 (2.6) 1 (0.4)   .
Yes 107 (8.7) 37 (8.2) 22 (8.5) 3.5 <0.001 18 (18) 15 (11) 6.8 <0.001
Two or more psychiatric disorders No 50 (1.3) 14 (1.0) 9 (1.1) . . 3 (2.1) 4 (1.6) . .
Yes 95 (6.6) 34 (6.4) 20 (6.3) 1.9 <0.001 19 (18) 12 (8.6) 4.3 0.001
Health service use past 12 months           
Any professional mental health service use No 57 (1.2) 15 (0.9) 12 (1.2) . . 10 (5.5) 7 (2.5) . .
Yes 88 (11) 33 (13) 17 (12) 4.1 <0.001 12 (17) 9 (8.7) 2.0 0.048
Consulted a mental health professional and did not get enough help/info as needed No, needs met 41 (12) 16 (15) 8 (15) . . 6 (13) 4 (5.6) . .
Yes, unmet need 24 (29) 6 (35) 2 (17) 1.8 0.023 6 (23) 6 (16) 2.0 0.162
  1. NSMHWB: National Survey Mental Health and Well-being (aged 18–85); ARMHS: Australian Rural Mental Health Study.
  2. #Bracketed values refer to the percentage of each predictor variable sub-category reporting 12-month suicidal ideation; see Additional file 1: Table S1 for cell sizes.
  3. Note: Each predictor variable was included in a separate logistic regression, controlling for age, gender, and K10 psychological distress score (as appropriate); AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio - adjusted for the covariates; bolded p-values are statistically significant (against Bonferroni-adjusted thresholds); see Additional file 3: Tables S3a and Additional file 3: Table S3b for AOR Confidence Intervals and (non-significant) Predictor variable x Region interactions.