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Table 5 Selected logistic regressions for lifetime suicidal ideation by remoteness, comparing 2007-NSMHWB and ARMHS samples

From: Determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: parallel cross-sectional analyses examining geographical location

Characteristic (predictor or exposure variable) Category 2007-NSMHWB# ARMHS#
Major cities (n = 5388) n (%) Inner regional (n = 1943) n (%) Other (n = 1132) n (%) AOR p-value Inner regional (n = 251) n (%) Other (n = 383) n (%) AOR p-value
Demographic factors           
Age in years 18-44 401 (15) 121 (15) 91 (19) . . 25 (42) 22 (28) . .
45-64 268 (18) 128 (19) 66 (18) 1.3 <0.001 36 (27) 48 (23) 0.68 0.095
65-85 87 (7.8) 40 (8.0) 22 (7.5) 0.59 <0.001 5 (8.9) 18 (18) 0.43 0.005
Gender Male 310 (13) 114 (13) 79 (15) . . 27 (26) 26 (18) . .
Female 446 (15) 175 (17) 100 (16) 1.1 0.254 39 (26) 62 (26) 1.2 0.283
Marital status Not married 529 (18) 185 (20) 120 (20) . . 31 (33) 51 (37) . .
Currently married 227 (9.2) 104 (10) 59 (11) 0.54 <0.001 35 (22) 36 (15) 0.48 <0.001
Education No university degree 471 (15) 221 (16) 130 (15) . . 49 (26) 72 (23) . .
University or higher degree 285 (13) 68 (13) 49 (19) 0.87 0.056 17 (26) 16 (25) 0.94 0.784
Employment status Employed 480 (14) 164 (14) 97 (14) . . 30 (24) 44 (21) . .
Not in Workforce 32 (27) 6 (18) 8 (22) 1.3 0.004 30 (26) 42 (26) 1.9 0.006
Unemployed 244 (13) 119 (16) 74 (17) 1.5 0.021 5 (56) 2 (20) 1.4 0.492
Financial adversity Low 536 (12) 210 (13) 121 (13) . . 25 (17) 41 (19) . .
Moderate 157 (26) 56 (25) 48 (31) 1.7 <0.001 22 (46) 20 (29) 1.9 0.009
High 63 (54) 23 (44) 10 (38) 3.5 <0.001 6 (33) 13 (48) 1.6 0.223
Physical health           
Smoking No 507 (12) 181 (12) 104 (12) . . 43 (24) 53 (20) . .
Yes 249 (22) 108 (24) 75 (26) 1.8 <0.001 12 (32) 22 (37) 1.2 0.444
Number of chronic diseases 0 492 (13) 159 (14) 109 (15) . . 43 (30) 60 (28)   .
1 177 (15) 82 (15) 46 (16) 1.3 0.004 18 (21) 21 (17) 0.63 0.055
> = 2 87 (18) 48 (21) 24 (19) 2.0 <0.001 5 (22) 7 (15) 0.58 0.164
Mental health           
Psychological distress (K10) Low 308 (8.1) 115 (8.3) 85 (10) . . 9 (13) 9 (7.6) . .
  Moderate 282 (23) 110 (25) 64 (26) 3.3 <0.001 30 (23) 46 (24) 2.7 <0.001
High 166 (50) 63 (53) 30 (53) 11 <0.001 27 (52) 33 (45) 7.9 <0.001
Any affective disorder No lifetime diagnosis 397 (8.7) 158 (9.5) 95 (9.9) . . 29 (16) 47 (15) . .
Lifetime diagnosis with 12 month symptoms 157 (49) 59 (53) 31 (46) 4.2 <0.001 23 (59) 16 (42) 2.6 0.001
Lifetime diagnosis with no 12 month symptoms 202 (42) 72 (42) 53 (49) 5.8 <0.001 14 (54) 25 (63) 7.1 <0.001
Any anxiety disorder No lifetime diagnosis 308 (7.7) 125 (8.7) 76 (9.2) . . 19 (14) 36 (16) . .
Lifetime diagnosis with 12 month symptoms 278 (37) 100 (39) 61 (38) 3.6 <0.001 37 (48) 33 (38) 2.7 <0.001
Lifetime diagnosis with no 12 month symptoms 170 (26) 64 (25) 42 (28) 3.2 <0.001 10 (27) 19 (30) 2.1 0.009
Any substance use disorders No lifetime diagnosis 438 (11) 170 (12) 96 (12) . . 39 (20) 53 (19) . .
Lifetime diagnosis with 12 month symptoms 86 (34) 23 (29) 13 (25) 2.6 <0.001 6 (75) 7 (64) 6.7 <0.001
Lifetime diagnosis with no 12 month symptoms 232 (24) 96 (23) 70 (25) 2.5 <0.001 21 (42) 28 (32) 2.0 0.003
Any lifetime psychiatric disorder No 107 (4.0) 38 (4.3) 28 (5.5) . . 4 (4.5) 11 (8.1) . .
Yes 649 (24) 251 (24) 151 (24) 4.7 <0.001 62 (38) 77 (31) 4.7 <0.001
Any 12 month psychiatric disorder No 344 (8.3) 143 (9.6) 98 (11) . . 22 (14) 36 (15) . .
Yes 412 (33) 146 (33) 81 (31) 2.8 <0.001 44 (44) 52 (37) 2.3 <0.001
Two or more psychiatric disorders No 262 (6.6) 109 (7.7%) 63 (7.7) . . 17 (12) 34 (14) . .
Yes 494 (35) 180 (34) 116 (37) 4.6 <0.001 49 (45) 54 (39) 3.2 <0.001
Health service use in past 12 months           
Any professional mental health service use No 445 (9.7) 173 (10) 115 (12) . . 37 (20) 47 (17) . .
Yes 311 (39) 116 (44) 64 (46) 3.6 <0.001 29 (41) 41 (39) 2.1 <0.001
Consulted a mental health professional and did not get as much help/info as needed No, needs met 120 (34) 46 (43) 21 (40) . . 17 (35) 27 (38) . .
Yes, unmet need 50 (60) 10 (59) 6 (50) 1.7 0.019 14 (54) 18 (49) 1.4 0.291
  1. NSMHWB: National Survey Mental Health and Well-being (aged 18–85); ARMHS: Australian Rural Mental Health Study.
  2. #Bracketed values refer to the percentage of each predictor (or exposure) variable sub-category reporting lifetime suicidal ideation; see Additional file 1: Table S1 for cell sizes.
  3. Note: Each predictor variable was included in a separate logistic regression, controlling for age, gender, and K10 psychological distress score (as appropriate); AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio - adjusted for the covariates; bolded p-values are statistically significant (against Bonferroni-adjusted thresholds); see Additional file 4: Table S4a and Additional file 4: Table S4b for AOR Confidence Intervals and (non-significant) Predictor variable x Region interactions.