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Table 3 Summary of pooled effects at follow-up

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of peer support for people with severe mental illness

Outcome Trials Participants Effect size (95% CI) Heterogeneity: I 2 ;Chi2 (p value) Follow-up (months post-treatment ) GRADE confidence rating
Peer support 4 1723     
Hospitalisation 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Symptoms of psychosis [45] 1 448 SMD = -0.00 (-0.19, 0.18) N/A 6 Low 4,5
Employment 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Quality of life [45, 50] 2 639 SMD = -0.24 (-0.40, -0.08) 0%; 0.00 (p = 0.98) 3-6 Very low1, 4, 5
Depression and anxiety [37, 45] 2 721 SMD = -0.17 (-0.32, -0.03) 0%; 0.15 (p = 0.70) 6 Low4,5
Overall psychiatric symptoms [45] 1 448 SMD = -0.08 (-0.26, 0.11) N/A 6 Low4,5
Recovery [45, 46] 2 757 SMD = -0.23 (-0.37, -0.09) 0%, 0.71 (p = 0.40) 6 Low4,5
Hope [45, 46, 50] 3 967 SMD = -0.24 (-0.46, -0.02) 65%; 5.74 (p = 0.06) 3-6 Very low1,2,4,5
Empowerment [46, 50] 2 538 SMD = -0.25 (-0.43, -0.07) 12%; 1.13 (p = 0.29) 6 Very low1,4,5
Satisfaction 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
  1. Reasons for downgrade: 1Risk of bias, 2Inconsistency, 3Indirectness, 4Imprecision, 5Publication/Reporting Bias.
  2. RR Relative Risk, SMD Standardised Mean Difference.