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Table 4 Quotes from participants describing symptoms of depression, generalised anxiety and tension

From: Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

Symptoms Supportive quotes from participants Participant’s GHQ-12 score Participant’s caste
ICD-10 symptoms of depression    
Persistent sadness “I felt sad and my heart was also not stable.” n/a Yadav
  “When I became sad I felt weak and kept thinking about these things.” 9 Mandal
Fatigue or low energy “I was so weak, didn’t feel like doing anything.” 7 Muslim
  “I was too weak to carry a bucket full of water, so I brought half a bucket of water to do some housework.” 7 Muslim
Disturbed sleep (also GAD) “Even now I can’t sleep if I get worried.” 8 Dalit
  “I was feeling sleepy all the time because of my worry.” 8 Muslim
Poor concentration or indecisiveness (also GAD) “I couldn’t understand the work because of tensions.” 7 Muslim
Poor or increased appetite “I lost my appetite.” 11 Dalit
  “I have so much tension. I have become weak because I don’t eat properly.” 5 Dalit
Suicidal thoughts or acts “I feel tense when someone blames me for not having a son; then I wish to die with the baby.” 8 Dalit
  “I have lots of tension because of this; sometimes I feel like consuming poison because I can’t see a way out.” 5 Mandal
Agitation or slowing of movements “I got very angry if someone said anything to me.” 7 Muslim
  “I was very irritable so which made me angry quickly, even when they showed sympathy I shouted a lot.” 7 Muslim
ICD-10 symptoms of Generalised Anxiety Disorder   
Autonomic symptom “I felt giddy, my palpitation increased.” 7 Muslim
Symptoms concerning chest and abdomen “Sometimes I had back pain; sometimes chest pain, sometimes loin pain and sometimes tummy pain.” 8 Dalit
Symptoms concerning brain and mind “I was lost and felt dizzy” 8 Dalit
  “I thought I might die.” 6 Mandal
General symptoms “I have pins and needles (jhujhuni in Maithili; jhamjhamaaunu in Nepali), weakness and fear.” 10 Muslim
Symptoms of tension “I had severe headache; didn’t feel like doing anything 7 Muslim
  “I had headache because of tension… I had body ache too.” 5 Dalit
Non-specific symptoms “I get scared when someone speaks loudly.” 10 Muslim
  “I have so much tension so can’t remember a lot of things.” 7 Muslim
Symptoms related to tension only    
Disorientation “I was wandering around here and there and got lost a few times.” 5 Sudi/Teli
Emotional pain “One pain is for not having a son.” 8 Dalit
  “People keep blaming me for not having a son; that hurts me very much.” 8 Dalit
Self-neglect “They were asking me why I looked tense and didn’t take care myself.” 5 Sudi/Teli
Fear for the future “I was so apprehensive about my children!” 7 Muslim
  “I was afraid if anything happened to me and my husband because of this who would look after my two children.” 5 Sudi/Teli
Symptoms concerning the heart “When it starts my whole body convulses and my heart is also not stable at that time.” n/a Dalit
  1. Notes: ‘n/a’ indicates FGD participants who did not complete the GHQ-12; GAD generalised anxiety disorder.