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Table 3 Poisson regression with DUP as an outcome: univariate and multivariate analyses

From: Which pathways to psychiatric care lead to earlier treatment and a shorter duration of first-episode psychosis?

   Univariate   Multivariate  
Total sample   Rate ratio (95% CI) P Rate ratio (95% CI) P
Age Per year 1.02 (1–1.03) 0.09 1.01 (1.00–1.04) 0.14
Gender Male 1   1  
  Female 0.9 0.62–1.30) 0.58 1.07 (0.77–1.48) 0.69
Single No 1   1  
  Yes 1.39 (0.99–1.97) 0.06 1.46 (0.99–2.14) 0.06
Qualifications None 1   1  
  Yes 0.79 (0.56–1.13) 0.20 0.99 (0.72–1.37) 0.95
Social class I,II,III 1   1  
  IV,V 1.15 (0.77–1.71) 0.51 1.07 (0.71–1.60) 0.75
  Unclassified, not working 1.16 (0.69–1.96) 0.57 1.31 (0.75–2.32) 0.34
Number of close persons Per person 0.9 (0.84–0.96) 0.002 0.93 (0.89–0.99) 0.03
UK born No 1   1  
  Yes 0.93 (0.65–1.32) 0.68 0.88 (0.60–1.29) 0.52
Ethnicity White 1   1  
  Black 0.57 (0.38–0.84) 0.005 0.52 (0.34–0.82) 0.004
  Indian sub-continent 0.92 (0.58–1.45) 0.72 0.88 (0.54–1.44) 0.61
  Other 0.96 (0.47–1.96) 0.91 0.75 (0.39–1.47) 0.41
Schizophrenia   1   1  
Delusional disorder   1.64 (0.86–3.14) 0.13 1.59 (0.90–2.82) 0.11
Brief psychotic disorder   0.66 (0.27–1.64) 0.37 0.74 (0.31–1.78) 0.50
Schizoaffective disorder 0.6 (0.38–0.95) 0.03 0.75 (0.44–1.26) 0.28
Non-affective psychosis: NOS 0.67 (0.35–1.28) 0.22 0.6 (0.26–1.38) 0.23
Psychotic depression 0.84 (0.49–1.43) 0.52 0.91 (0.53–1.55) 0.72
Psychotic mania 0.19 (0.13–0.27) <0.001 0.22 (0.14–0.35) <0.001
Affective psychosis-NOS 0.16 (0.09–0.31) <0.001 0.18 (0.06–0.54) 0.002
Detained within a No 1   1  
week of contact Yes 0.68 (0.47–0.98) 0.04 0.66 (0.45–0.96) 0.03
1st Contact on Pathway Community health & social care 1.08 (0.65–1.79) 0.77 0.96 (0.54–1.69) 0.88
Criminal justice system 1.28 (0.81–2.00) 0.30 1.61 (1.00–2.58) 0.05
  Hospital medicine 2.44 (0.44–13.42) 0.30 2.32 (0.88–6.16) 0.09
  Psychiatric services 0.85 (0.27–2.65) 0.78 0.81 (0.29–2.27) 0.68
  Accident & Emergency 0.84 (0.52–1.33) 0.45 0.84 (0.52–1.34) 0.46
  Emergency clinics 0.42 (0.24–0.72) 0.002 0.40 (0.23–0.71) 0.002
  1. Note. R2 = 22.3% of variance on 427 observations. Data point for detained within a week of contact complete for only 474. Data point for close persons has only 433 observations. All Poisson estimates used Poisson regression commands in STATA with the vce (robust) command to ensure robust confidence intervals and guarding against over-dispersion and violations of model assumption.