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Table 3 Means and standard deviation (SD) of beliefs about the management of aggression

From: Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

No.   Mean SD
Management: General   
11 Different approaches are used on this ward to manage patient aggression and violence. 1.7 0.8
24 Patient aggression could be handled more effectively on this ward. 2.1 0.8
Management: Use of medication
16 Medication is a valuable approach for treating aggressive and violent behaviour. 2.3 0.9
25 Prescribed medication can in some instances lead to patient aggression and violence. 2.2 0.6
28 Prescribed medication should be used more frequently to help patients who are aggressive and violent. 2.4 0.9
Management: Use of seclusion
13 When a patient is violent, seclusion is one of the most effective approaches to use. 2.7 0.9
15 The practice of secluding violent patients should be discontinued. 3.0 0.8
27 Seclusion is sometimes used more than necessary. 2.5 0.9
Management: Restraint
14 Patients who are violent are often restrained for their own safety. 2.5 0.9
21 Physical restraint is sometimes used more than necessary. 2.4 0.9
Management: Non-physical methods
18 Negotiation could be used more effectively when managing aggression and violence. 1.9 0.7
20 Expressions of aggression do not always require staff intervention. 2.5 0.8
22 Alternatives to the use of containment and sedation to manage patient violence could be used more frequently. 2.1 0.7
29 The use of de-escalation is successful in preventing violence. 1.7 0.6
  1. Rating scale: 1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = disagree, 4 = strongly disagree.