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Table 1 Characteristics of study sample by level of SOC at baseline (n = 165)

From: Sense of coherence and quality of life in older in-hospital patients without cognitive impairment- a 12 month follow-up study

   Low SOC Medium high SOC High SOC Total
Socio-demographic          
Women N (%) 24 (42.86) 36 (61.02) 25 (50.00) 85 (51.52)
Age (by year) Mean (SD) 76.73 (7.25) 78.64 (7.35) 77.76 (6.00) 77.73 (6.93)
Smoking N (%) 8 (14.29) 5 (8.47) 7 (14.00) 20 (12.12)
Living alone N (%) 32 (57.14) 32 (54.24) 23 (46.00) 87 (52.73)
Information on physical health          
Previous hospitalisations last 5 years Mean (SD) 1.96 (2.40) 1.98 (2.40) 1.94 (2.71) 1.96 (2.48)
Actual hospitalisation (days)          
   Duration of hospital stay Mean (SD) 5.41 (3.90) 5.76 (3.92) 5.36 (3.92) 5.52 (3.88)
   Duration before inclusion Mean (SD) 2.75 (1.73) 4.02 (2.78) 4.22 (3.33) 3.65 (2.73)*
Charlson Index Mean (SD) 1.84 (1.62) 2.27 (2.32) 1.56 (1.46) 1.91 (1.87)
Functional capability          
P-ADL Mean (SD) 7.25 (1.76) 7.36 (1.63) 7.26 (2.21) 7.29 (1.85)
I-ADL Mean (SD) 7.46 (2.86) 8.09 (2.45) 8.44 (2.01) 7.98 (2.50)
Anxiety and depression          
Depression (HADS-D score ≥ 8) N (%) 6 (10.71) 1 (1.69) 2 (4.00) 9 (5.45)
Anxiety (HADS-A score ≥ 8) N (%) 9 (16.07) 3 (5.08) 1 (2.00) 13 (7.88)
  1. SOC = Sense of Coherence, P-ADL = Personal all day living function, IADL = Instrumental all day living function, HADS-D = Depressive symptoms of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A = Anxiety symptoms of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
  2. *p ≤ 0.05 analyzed with ANOVA by level of SOC.