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Table 1 Mental comorbidity in adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes or major depressive disorder (MDD) and in non-mood controls

From: Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence: a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

Comorbid diagnoses in adolescence (<18 years) Full-syndromal hypomaniaan = 40 (%) All hypomania spectrum n = 90 (%) MDD n = 197 (%) Controls n = 229 (%) OR (95% CI)ball hypomania vs. MDD OR (95% CI)ball hypomania vs. controls
Separation anxiety disorder 20 (50) 32 (36) 77 (39) 26 (11) 0.88 (052–1.48) 4.49 (2.46-8.18)***
Avoidant disorder 7 (18) 14 (16) 23 (12) 4 (2) 1.42 (0.69-2.95) 10.10 (3.21-31.74)***
Overanxious disorder 16 (40) 27 (30) 74 (38) 10 (4) 0.71 (0.41-1.22) 9.42 (4.31-20.58)***
Panic disorder 5 (13) 12 (13) 26 (13) 2 (1) 1.09 (0.52-2.30) 19.96 (4.33-91.94)***
OCD 18 (45) 26 (29) 47 (24) 10 (4) 1.30 (073–2.29) 9.23 (4.20-20.28)***
PTSD 2 (5) 3 (3) 11 (6) 1 (0) 0.57 (0.15-2.11) 7.96 (0.81-78.26)
Psychotic symptoms 4 (10) 9 (10) 6 (3) - 3.67 (1.25-10.82)* - 1
Anorexia nervosa - - 10 (5) 1 (0) - 1 - 1
Bulimia nervosa - 1 (1) 3 (2) - 0.88 (0.09-8.64) - 1
ADHD 8 (20) 13 (14) 20 (10) 2 (1) 1.24 (0.57-2.70) 17.70 (3.87-80.85)***
CD 12 (30) 29 (32) 39 (20) 10 (4) 1.71 (0.96-3.05) 10.24 (4.72-22.23)***
ODD 4 (10) 8 (9) 20 (10) 2 (1) 0.91 (0.38-2.18) 11.55 (2.39-55.85)**
Drug/sniffing/alcohol abuse 5 (13) 12 (13) 16 (8) 2 (1) 1.56 (0.69-3.52) 18.17 (3.96-83.42)***
Any comorbidity 34 (85) 70 (78) 157 (80) 58 (25) 0.89 (0.48-1.65) 10.56 (5.88-18.97)***
  1. * <0.05; ** <0.01; *** < 0.001.
  2. aFull-syndromal hypomania is included in all hypomania spectrum, but is also presented separately for transparency.
  3. bAll p-values adjusted for sex in a logistic regression model.
  4. 1Adjustment for sex was not possible owing to missing symptoms in comparison group.
  5. MDD: Major Depression; OCD: Obsessive-compulsive disorder; PTSD: Posttraumatic stress disorder; ADHD: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; CD: Conduct disorder; ODD: Oppositional defiant disorder; OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence interval.