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Table 2 Adult non-mood Axis I disorders in a 15-year follow-up of adolescents with hypomania spectrum disorder or major depressive disorder (MDD) and of non-mood controls

From: Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence: a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

Non-mood Axis I disorders in adulthood (MINI) Full-syndromal hypomaniaan = 27 (%) All hypomania spectrum n = 64 (%) MDD n = 130 (%) Controls n = 148 (%) Followed cases Multiple imputation data
OR (95% CI)dall hypomania vs. MDD OR (95% CI)dall hypomania vs. controls OR (95% CI)dall hypomania vs. MDD OR (95% CI)dall hypomania vs. controls
GADb 6 (22) 12 (19) 19 (15) 7 (5) 1.51 (0.67-3.39) 5.15 (1.90-13.97)*** 1.36 (0.64-2.90) 5.72 (2.25-14.58)***
Panic disorderc 6 (22) 14 (22) 23 (18) 11 (7) 1.55 (0.72-3.33) 3.82 (1.61-9.08)** 1.77 (0.87-3.57) 5.01 (2.22-11.29)***
Social anxietyc 5 (19) 11 (17) 27 (21) 10 (7) 0.75 (0.34-1.64) 2.79 (1.11-6.99)* 0.61 (0.29-1.27) 3.36 (1.37-8.27)**
Agoraphobiac 6 (22) 14 (22) 28 (22) 12 (8) 1.14 (0.55-2.39) 3.48 (1.49-8.15)** 1.03 (0.54-1.98) 4.23 (1.94-9.21)***
OCDb - 4 (6) 6 (5) 2 (1) 1.67 (0.45-6.21) 5.62 (0.99-31.81) 1.42 (0.38-5.32) 4.83 (0.87-27.80)
PTSDb - 4 (6) 1 (1) - 8.97 (0.97-83.25) - 1 9.20 (1.06-79.93)* - 1
Somatization disorderb - 1 (2) 3 (2) - 0.59 (0.07-5.47) - 1 0.64 (0.07-5.83) - 1
Dysmorphophobiab 1 (4) 3 (5) 5 (4) 1 (1) 1.48 (0.34-6.46) 8.30 (0.84-81.98) 1.12 (0.26-4.95) 8.66 (0.89-84.49)
Bulimia nervosab 1 (4) 3 (5) 2 (2) - 3.80 (0.61-23.55) - 1 8.66 (1.66-48.09)* - 1
Psychotic symptomsb - - 2 (2) 2 (1) - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1
ADHDb - 2 (3) 1 (1) 1 (1) 3.85 (0.33-44.89) 4.55 (0.40-51.84) 2.93 (0.24-36.02) 4.82 (0.44-52.41)
Alcohol abusec 4 (15) 10 (16) 17 (13) 11 (7) 1.29 (0.55-3.05) 2.19 (0.87-5.49) 1.39 (0.67-2.87) 3.52 (1.53-8.10)**
Drug abusec - 4 (6) 8 (6) 3 (2) 2.00 (0.27-15.00) 5.41 (0.48-61.15) 3.75 (0.72-19.53) 14.79 (1.70-128.94)*
Any non- mood morbidity 15 (56) 34 (53) 74 (57) 41 (28) 0.86 (0.46-1.58) 2.98 (1.62-5.50)*** 0.85 (0.48-1.51) 4.04 (2.29-7.16)***
  1. * <0.05; ** <0.01; *** < 0.001.
  2. aFull-syndromal hypomania in the follow up is included in all hypomania spectrum, but is also presented separately for transparency.
  3. bCurrent at follow-up.
  4. cAny time from age 19 to follow-up.
  5. dAll p-values adjusted for sex in a logistic regression model.
  6. 1Missing cases in the comparison group; could therefore not be analyzed.
  7. MINI: MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus; MDD: Major depressive disorder; GAD: Generalized anxiety disorder; OCD: Obsessive-compulsive disorder; PTSD: Posttraumatic stress disorder; ADHD: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence interval.