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Table 3 Adult personality disorders in a 15-year follow-up of adolescents with hypomania spectrum disorder or major depressive disorder (MDD) and of non-mood controls

From: Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence: a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

Personality disorders (DIP-Q) Full-syndromal hypomaniaan = 26 (%) All hypomania spectrum n = 62 (%) MDD n = 133 (%) Control n = 149 (%) Followed cases Multiple imputation data
OR (95% CI)ball hypomania vs. MDD OR (95% CI)ball hypomania vs. controls OR (95% CI)ball hypomania vs. MDD OR (95% CI)ball hypomania vs. controls
Cluster A (odd or eccentric)         
Any cluster A disorder 7 (27) 13 (21) 16 (12) 5 (3) 1.98 (0.88-4.46) 7.54 (2.55-22.26)*** 1.59 (0.69-3.69) 6.39 (2.10-19.49)**
Paranoid personality 5 (19) 10 (16) 12 (9) 4 (3) 1.96 (0.79-4.86) 6.73 (2.02-22.50)** 1.40 (0.64-3.05) 8.02 (2.39-26.88)***
Schizoid personality - 1 (2) 3 (2) 1 (1) 0.83 (0.08-8.19) 2.64 (0.16-43.18) 0.84 (0.09-8.06) 2.96 (0.18-48.46)
Schizotypal personality 3 (12) 8 (13) 9 (7) 4 (3) 2.07 (0.75-5.73) 5.34 (1.54-18.53)** 2.07 (0.76-5.60) 5.50 (1.59-19.04)**
Cluster B (dramatic, emotional, or erratic)         
Any cluster B disorder 2 (8) 6 (10) 18 (14) 4 (3) 0.68 (0.26-1.84) 4.12 (1.11-15.26)* 0.69 (0.25-1.88) 4.03 (1.12-14.48)*
Antisocial personality 1 (4) 2 (3) 2 (2) - 2.09 (0.28-15.64) - 1 1.94 (0.26-14.22) - 1
Borderline personality 2 (8) 6 (10) 14 (11) 4 (3) 0.98 (0.35-2.71) 4.12 (1.11-15.26)* 0.89 (0.36-2.21) 4.98 (1.40-17.68)*
Histrionic personality 1 (4) 3 (5) 3 (2) - 1.97 (0.38-10.36) - 1 1.67 (0.33-8.56) - 1
Narcissistic personality - 2 (3) 5 (4) - 1.07 (0.86-1.34) - 1 0.86 (0.17-4.43) - 1
Cluster C (anxious or fearful)         
Any cluster C disorder 9 (35) 18 (29) 23 (17) 12 (8) 1.85 (0.90-3.80) 4.61 (2.06-10.33)*** 1.69 (0.84-3.40) 4.25 (1.90-9.50)***
Avoidant personality 5 (19) 11 (18) 17 (13) 6 (4) 1.43 (0.62-3.30) 5.14 (1.80-14.66)** 1.15 (0.52-2.54) 4.90 (1.69-14.18)**
Dependent personality 2 (8) 2 (3) 6 (5) 1 (1) 0.83 (0.16-4.25) 5.41 (0.48-61.15) 0.48 (0.10-2.24) 5.54 (0.49-62.76)
Obsessive-compulsive personality 7 (27) 15 (24) 19 (14) 11 (7) 1.83 (0.85-3.95) 3.90 (1.67-9.12)** 2.29 (1.13-4.64)* 5.42 (2.44-12.05)***
Any personality disorder 9 (35) 18 (29) 26 (20) 12 (8) 1.61 (0.80-3.26) 4.61 (2.06-10.33)*** 1.74 (0.92-3.31) 6.63 (2.93-15.00)***
  1. * <0.05; ** <0.01; *** < 0.001.
  2. aFull-syndromal hypomania in the follow up is included in all hypomania spectrum, but is also presented separately for transparency.
  3. bAll p-values adjusted for sex in a logistic regression model.
  4. 1Missing cases in the comparison group; could therefore not be analyzed.
  5. DIP-Q: DSM-IV – ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire; MDD: Major depressive disorder; OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence interval.