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Table 13 DSM-5 diagnosis of agoraphobia

From: Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders

• Marked fear or anxiety about ≥2 of the following 5 groups of situations:
(1) Public transportation (e.g., traveling in automobiles, buses, trains, ships, or planes)
(2) Open spaces (e.g., parking lots, market places, or bridges)
(3) Being in shops, theatres, or cinemas
(4) Standing in line or being in a crowd
(5) Being outside of the home alone in other situations
• The individual fears or avoids these situations due to thoughts that escape might be difficult or help might not be available in the event of panic-like symptoms
• The agoraphobic situations almost always provoke fear or anxiety
• The situations are actively avoided, require presence of a companion, or endured with marked fear or anxiety
• The fear or anxiety is out of proportion to actual danger posed by agoraphobic situation
• The fear, anxiety, or avoidance is persistent, typically lasting ≥6 months
• The fear, anxiety, and avoidance cause clinically significant distress or functional impairment
  1. Adapted from DSM-5 [26].