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Table 18 Psychological treatments with demonstrated efficacy in specific phobias

From: Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders

Psychological treatment Phobia
Exposure-based treatments All specific phobias [57, 311, 312]
Virtual reality exposure Heights [327329], flying [319, 321324], spiders [331, 332], claustrophobia [330]
Computer-based self-help programs Spiders [334, 335], flying [323], small animals [336, 337]
Applied muscle tension (exposure combined with muscle tension exercises) Blood-injection-injury type [311, 315, 316]
Cognitive therapy and exposure Dental [318], flying [319, 320]