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Table 9 Components of cognitive behavioral interventions

From: Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders

Exposure • Encourage patients to face fears
• Patients learn corrective information through experience
• Extinction of fear occurs through repeated exposure
• Successful coping enhances self-efficacy
Safety response inhibition • Patients restrict their usual anxiety-reducing behaviors (e.g., escape, need for reassurance)
• Decreases negative reinforcement
• Coping with anxiety without using anxiety-reducing behavior enhances self-efficacy
Cognitive strategies • Cognitive restructuring, behavioral experiments, and related strategies target patients’ exaggerated perception of danger (e.g., fear of negative evaluation in SAD)
• Provides corrective information regarding the level of threat
• Can also target self-efficacy beliefs
Arousal management • Relaxation and breathing control skills can help patient control increased anxiety levels
Surrender of safety signals • Patient relinquishes safety signals (e.g., presence of a companion, knowledge of the location of the nearest toilet)
• Patients learn adaptive self-efficacy beliefs
  1. Adapted from reference [73].