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Table 3 Studies of clinical practice

From: TREC-Rio trial: a randomised controlled trial for rapid tranquillisation for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms [ISRCTN44153243]

  Incidents Physical restraint IV:IM Drug of choice Frequency of use mean dose in mg (range) Second injection Complications / comments
UK 1997 [20] 3.3 / week / 100,000 catchment area population ~5 people per week 64% (nurses) 1:1 Diazepam Most frequent 27 (10–80)   1 hypotention
     Haloperidol (exact data not presented) 22 (10–60) 26% 1 cardiorespiratory arrest (60 mg haloperidol + 80 mg DZ)
     Chlorpromazine   162 (50–400)   1 tachycardia, 1 hypotention
     Droperidol   14 (10–20)   
     Paraldehyde     1 respiratory distress
     Amytal     
     Lorazepam     
     Nitrazepam Least frequent    
France 1999 [18] 5.6 / 1000 contacts 86% (nurses) 0:80 Loxapine 80% 200 mg   2 with acute dystonia
     Droperidol 5%    
     Chlorazepate 5%    
     Cyamemazine < 2%   6% Mostly people with substance abuse
     Diazepam     
     Sultopride     
     Meprobamate     
Brazil 2000 [13] 2.1 / week / 100,000 catchment area population ~74 people per week Majority (restraints and nurses) 0:74 Haloperidol + promethazine 61% 5 (2.5–10) + 50 (25–100) 0%  
     Haloperidol + Promethazine + Diazepam 15% 5 (2.5–10) + 50 (25–100) + 10   
     Diazepam 9% 10   
     Haloperidol + Promethazine + Chlorpromazine 7% 5 + 50 + 25   
     Chlorpromazine + Diazepam + Promethazine 1% 25 + 10   
     Chlorpromazine + Promethanzine 1% 25 + 50   
     Chlorpromazine 1% 25   
     Diazepam + Promethazine 1% 10 + 5   
     Haloperidol + Diazepam 1% 5 + 10   
     Promethazine 1% 50