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Table 2 Description of the 27 studies included in this meta-analysis

From: Psychiatric diagnoses in 3275 suicides: a meta-analysis

Study Year Origin Diagnostic criteria Methods Number of diagnoses n Suicide With a Dx (%) n Control with a Dx (%) Matched
Appleby et al.[151]* 1999 England ICD-10 Official records and interviews Multiple 84 76 (90%) 64 17 (27%) Living ± 5 year and sex
Apter et al.[145]* 1993 Israel DSM-III Official records and interviews Principal 43 35 (81%)    
Asgard U.[147]* 1990 Sweden RDC Official records and interviews Principal 104 99 (95%)    
Cavanagh et al.[14] 1999 Scotland DSM-III Official records and interviews Principal 45 44 (98%)    
Cheng et al.[16]* 1995 Taiwan DSM-III-R Official records and interviews Multiple 116 114 (98%) 226 130 (58%) Living ± 5 years, sex, area of residence
Conwell et al.[156]* 1996 USA DSM-III-R Official records and interviews Multiple 141 127 (90%)    
Foster et al.[142,144] 1997/1999 Ireland DSM-III-R Official records and interviews Multiple 118 106 (90%) 117 30 (26%) List of deceased's GP Age, gender, marital status
Harwood et al.[17]* 2001 England ICD-10 Official records and interviews Multiple 100 93 (93%) 54 N/A Natural deaths Age and sex
Hawton et al.[10] 2002 England ICD-10 Official records and interviews Multiple 42 38 (90%) 84 6 (7%) Living nurses ± 10 years, specialty and seniority
Henriksson et al.[11] 1993 Finland DSM-III-R Official records and interviews Multiple 229 225 (98%)    
Houston et al.[12] 2001 England ICD-10 Official records and interviews Multiple 47 40 (85%)    
Lesage et al.[150] 1994 Canada DSM-III-R Official records and interviews Multiple 75 69 (92%) 75 N/A Living Neighbourhood, age, marital status and occupation
Phillips et al.[9]* 2002 China DSM-IV Interviews with informants Principal 519 325 (63%) 536 93 (17%) Accidental deaths Geographical areas
Rich et al.[143] 1986 USA DSM-III Official records and interviews Multiple 283 258 (91%)    
Runeson B.[153] 1989 Sweden DSM-III-R Official records and interviews Principal 58 57 (98%)    
Shaffer et al.[18]* 1996 USA DSM-III Official records and interviews Multiple 119 108 (91%)    
Shaffi et al.[13]* 1988 USA DSM-III Official records and interviews Multiple 21 20 (95%) 21 11 (52%) Living friends Sex, age, race, education, religion, income, and father's education
Vijayakumar et al.[159]* 1999 India DSM-III-R Official records and interviews Principal 100 88 (88%) 100 14 (14%) Living SES, sex and ± 2 years
Waern et al.[154]* 2002 Sweden DSM-IV Official records and interviews Multiple 85 82 (96%) 153 28 (18%) Living Sex, ± 2 years
Boardman et al.[152] 1999 England ICD-10 Multiple official records Multiple 212 151 (71%) 212 40 (19%) Unnatural deaths ± 5 years and sex
Cantor et al.[157] 1989 Australia DSM-III-R Multiple official records Principal 47 41 (87%)    
Groholt et al.[149]* 1997 Norway DSM-III-R Multiple official records Multiple 121 90 (74%)    
Thacore et al.[158] 2000 Australia ICD-9 Multiple official records Principal 75 46 (65%)    
Graham et al.[15] 1992 Australia DSM-III Multiple official records Multiple 136 120 (88%)    
Brent et al.[148] 1999 USA DSM-III Interviews with informants Multiple 140 115 (82%) 131 32 (24%) Living Age, race, gender, country and SES
Cerel et al.[155] 2000 USA RDC Interviews with informants Multiple 15 13 (87%) 201 70 (35%) Non-suicide bereaved family
Arato et al.[146]* 1987 Hungary RDC Interviews with informants Principal 200 162 (81%)    
  1. * Based on axis I disorders only.
  2. N/A – information not available or not clear