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Table 1 Overview of psychometric properties of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale

From: Psychometric properties of the Flemish translation of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale

Author Sample Reliability Validity Diagnostic Values
Champagne et al. [26] n = 35 (21 hospitalized and 14 nursing home patients) age ≥ 69 years Internal consistency = 0.85
Interrater reliability = 0.96
Test-retest reliability = 0.98
Concurrent:
Correlation with MMSE = 0.81
Construct:
Factor analysis revealed 2 factors (% of variance explained not given)
 
Neelon et al. [25] n = 158 medical patients age ≥ 65 years    At least two of three clinical indicators (MSP1, MMSE2, DSM-III3) = reference criterion; and NEECHAM cut-off = 24/25:
sensitivity: 95%
specificity: 78%
predictive value: 57%
false positive: 17%
false negative: 3%
Neelon et al. [22] Sample 1:
n = 168 medical patients age ≥ 65 years
Sample 1:
Internal consistency = 0.90
Sample 1:
Concurrent:
* Correlation with MMSE = 0.87
* Correlation with DSM-III-R total score = -0.91
* Correlation with diagnosis of delirium by DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria = -0.70
Construct:
Factor analysis revealed 2 factors (explaining 72% of variance)
 
  Sample 2:
n = 258 medical patients age ≥ 65 years
Sample 2:
Internal consistency = 0.90
Sample 2:
Concurrent:
* Correlation with DSM-III-R total score = -0.86
* Correlation with diagnosis of delirium by DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria = -0.54
Construct:
Factor analysis revealed 2 factors (% of variance explained not given)
 
Csokasy [27] n = 19 patients on intensive care unit age ≥ 65 years Internal consistency = 0.81 Concurrent:
* correlation with oxygen saturation below 91 = 0.93
* correlation with DSM-III-R total score = 0.68
 
Johansson et al. [28] n = 73 patients with hip fracture age ≥ 60 years Before surgery:
Internal consistency = 0.73
After surgery:
Internal consistency = 0.82
Before surgery:
Construct:
Factor analysis revealed 2 factors (explaining 57.4% of variance) and 3 factors (explaining 69% of variance)
After surgery:
Construct:
Factor analysis revealed 2 factors (explaining 61.5% of variance) and 3 factors (explaining 73.6% of variance)
 
  1. 1MSP = chart report of mental status problem
  2. 2MMSE = Mini-Mental-State Examination
  3. 3DSM-III-R = Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd ed., revised