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Table 2 Percentage (and 95% CI) of Japanese and Australian respondents giving each cause as "very likely" or "likely" for the person described in the vignette

From: Public beliefs about causes and risk factors for mental disorders: a comparison of Japan and Australia

Cause Depression Vignette Depression/Suicidal Vignette Early Schizophrenia Vignette Chronic Schizophrenia Vignette
Virus or infection     
   Japanese 6.2 (4.1–8.3) 6.6 (4.4–8.8) 7.2 (4.9–9.5) 7.2 (4.9–9.5)
   Australian 50.5 (47.1–54.0) 41.4 (38.2–44.7) 32.1 (29.0–35.4) 33.6 (30.7–36.6)
Allergy     
   Japanese 10.2 (7.5–12.9) 11.4 (8.6–14.2) 12.6 (9.7–15.5) 9.4 (6.8–12.0)
   Australian 44.9 (41.4–48.5) 37.6 (34.3–41.0) 31.5 (28.4–34.7) 28.4 (25.5–31.5)
Day-to-day problems     
   Japanese 93.6 (91.4–95.8) 91.8 (89.4–94.2) 92.0 (89.6–94.4) 91.2 (88.7–93.7)
   Australian 96.8 (95.2–97.9) 95.7 (94.2–96.9) 89.6 (87.6–91.2) 86.6 (84.3–88.7)
Death of someone close     
   Japanese 79.8 (76.3–83.3) 81.4 (78.0–84.8) 73.4 (69.5–77.3) 74.0 (70.1–77.9)
   Australian 96.3 (94.6–97.5) 94.8 (93.1–96.0) 87.4 (85.2–89.4) 83.3 (80.7–85.6)
Traumatic event     
   Japanese 82.6 (79.3–85.9) 79.6 (76.1–83.1) 78.2 (74.6–81.8) 80.8 (77.3–84.3)
   Australian 93.9 (91.8–95.4) 92.7 (90.7–94.2) 86.5 (84.1–88.6) 82.8 (80.2–85.1)
Problems from childhood     
   Japanese 81.0 (77.5–84.5) 82.0 (78.6–85.4) 88.2 (85.4–91.0) 89.0 (86.2–91.8)
   Australian 91.3 (89.2–93.1) 95.0 (93.2–96.3) 90.8 (88.8–92.5) 91.4 (89.4–93.0)
Inherited or genetic     
   Japanese 34.6 (30.4–38.8) 34.0 (29.8–38.2) 34.2 (30.0–38.4) 43.8 (39.4–48.2)
   Australian 68.0 (64.8–71.0) 68.4 (65.3–71.3) 70.0 (66.8–73.0) 73.7 (70.6–76.6)
Nervous person     
   Japanese 81.4 (78.0–84.8) 77.4 (73.7–81.1) 74.0 (70.1–77.9) 81.8 (78.4–85.2)
   Australian 67.9 (64.6–70.9) 65.6 (62.3–68.7) 58.1 (54.4–61.7) 56.9 (53.6–60.2)
Weakness of character     
   Japanese 73.6 (69.7–77.5) 69.2 (65.1–73.3) 73.4 (69.5–77.3) 82.0 (78.6–85.4)
   Australian 43.0 (39.7–46.3) 46.1 (42.8–49.3) 39.7 (36.5–42.9) 35.1 (31.6–38.8)