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Table 1 Frequency of sleep-wake behaviour during the past 6 months in children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism (n = 32) and controls (n = 32).

From: Insomnia in school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

Sleep-wake behaviour Group Never (%) Rarely (%) ≥ 1–2 t/wk (%) ≥ 3 t/wk (%) ≥ 5 t/wk (%) p
Dyssomnia-related        
Q1 Bedtime resistance AS/HFA 15.6 37.5 9.4 21.9 15.6 ns
  Controls 15.6 40.6 18.8 18.8 6.3  
Q2 Anxiety at bedtime AS/HFA 50.0 28.1 9.4 0 12.5 ns
  Controls 71.9 18.8 0 3.1 6.3  
Q3 Lights on during night AS/HFA 56.3 9.4 0 0 34.4 ns
  Controls 68.8 15.6 0 0 15.6  
Q4 Accompanied by someone at onset of sleep AS/HFA 62.5 12.5 6.3 6.3 12.5 ns
  Controls 75.0 12.5 6.3 6.3 0  
Q5 Sleeps in parents' bed AS/HFA 56.3 25.0 9.4 0 9.4 ns
  Controls 59.4 28.1 3.1 3.1 6.3  
Q6 Difficulties initiating sleep AS/HFA 15.6 37.5 21.9 12.5 12.5 < 0.01
  Controls 31.3 56.3 9.4 0 3.1  
Q7 Night-time wakings AS/HFA 9.4 68.8 3.1 15.6 3.1 ns
  Controls 18.8 46.9 18.8 9.4 6.3  
Q8 Tosses and turns during sleep AS/HFA 46.9 25.0 9.4 9.4 0 ns
  Controls 37.5 53.1 0 3.1 3.1  
Q9 Pain in legs disturb sleep AS/HFA 78.1 18.8 0 3.1 0 ns
  Controls 75.0 25.0 0 0 0  
Q10 Snoring AS/HFA 59.4 25.0 6.3 0 6.3 ns
  Controls 62.5 31.3 0 6.3 0  
Q11 Breathing difficulties during sleep AS/HFA 93.8 3.1 0 3.1 0 ns
  Controls 93.8 3.1 3.1 0 0  
Q12 Daytime sleepiness AS/HFA 18.8 43.8 18.8 15.6 3.1 < 0.01
  Controls 46.9 50.0 3.1 0 0  
Q13 Daytime naps AS/HFA 81.3 12.5 3.1 3.1 0 ns
  Controls 93.8 6.3 0 0 0  
Parasomnia-related        
Q14 Rhythmic movements AS/HFA 93.8 6.3 0 0 0 ns
  Controls 100.0 0 0 0 0  
Q15 Bedwetting AS/HFA 90.6 6.3 0 0 3.1 ns
  Controls 93.8 3.1 0 3.1 0  
Q16 Teethgrinding AS/HFA 71.9 12.5 12.5 3.1 0 ns
  Controls 75.0 21.9 0 3.1 0  
Q17 Sleep talking AS/HFA 46.9 40.6 9.4 0 3.1 ns
  Controls 40.6 50.0 3.1 6.3 0  
Q18 Sleep walking AS/HFA
Controls
93.8
84.4
6.3
15.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
ns
Q19 Confusional arousals AS/HFA 78.1 15.6 3.1 3.1 0 ns
  Controls 87.5 9.4 0 0 0  
Q20 Night terrors AS/HFA 87.5 9.4 3.1 0 0 ns
  Controls 90.6 6.3 3.1 0 0  
Q21 Nightmares AS/HFA 15.6 78.1 3.1 0 3.1 ns
  Controls 31.3 62.5 3.1 3.1 0  
  1. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test. ns = no statistically significant differences between children with AS/HFA and controls. AS = Asperger syndrome HFA = high-functioning autism.