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Table 2 Adjusted relative risk of schizophrenia for 1.84 million people born in Denmark 1956–1983 according to place of residence and the distance to nearest major road at the 15th birthday where 10,394 developed schizophrenia 1970–2001.

From: Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

Geographical distance to nearest major road at 15th birthday Relative Risk (95 percent Confidence Interval) *
  Place of residence at 15th birthday
  Capital Capital suburb Provincial city Provincial town Rural area
0–50 m 2.16 (1.76, 2.65) 1.42 (1.12, 1.80) 1.34 (1.09, 1.65) 1.14 (0.97, 1.35) 1.10 (0.95, 1.27)
50–100 m 2.15 (1.71, 2.70) 1.53 (1.25, 1.87) 1.47 (1.21, 1.80) 1.26 (1.07, 1.49) 1.04 (0.88, 1.24)
100–250 m 2.34 (2.00, 2.73) 1.51 (1.30, 1.75) 1.48 (1.27, 1.72) 1.20 (1.05, 1.37) 1.02 (0.89, 1.17)
250–500 m 2.25 (1.95, 2.59) 1.47 (1.28, 1.70) 1.31 (1.12, 1.54) 1.22 (1.06, 1.39) 1.04 (0.91, 1.20)
500–1000 m 2.14 (1.85, 2.48) 1.65 (1.44, 1.89) 1.45 (1.21, 1.73) 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) 1.06 (0.92, 1.22)
1000–2000 m 1.92 (1.49, 2.47) 1.63 (1.37, 1.94) 1.23 (0.91, 1.65) 1.03 (0.86, 1.24) 1.05 (0.90, 1.21)
>2000 m 0.64 (0.09, 4.53) † 1.05 (0.62, 1.80) 1.22 (0.75, 1.99) 1.23 (0.98, 1.55) 1.00 (ref)
  1. There was no interaction between these variables (p = 0.49).
  2. *: Estimates of relative risks were adjusted for age and its interaction with gender, calendar year of diagnosis, and mental illness in a parent or sibling.
  3. † This estimate was based on one person with schizophrenia, while all other estimates were based on at least 14 people with schizophrenia.